|Routine Urine Examination|
|Chemical Examination of Urine|
|Microscopic Examination of Urine|
Page 1 of 3Physical Examination of Urine
Urine Examination by Uristix MethodIntroduction
Routine urine examination is detailed analysis of urine. It helps detect alterations in the composition of the urine which help in the diagnosis of many disorders.
When a sample of urine is submitted to a pathological laboratory, the following examinations are done:
- Normal volume of an early morning mid–stream sample is 50 – 300ml.
- If it is more than 500ml, it indicates diabetes or polyuria (frequent passing of urine).
- If it is less than 20ml, it indicates some kidney disorder.
- The normal color of urine is pale yellow.
- If it is dark yellow to orange, it indicates some liver disorder.
- If it is white, it shows the presence of pus.
- If it is pink to red, it indicates the presence of red blood cells.
- If it is brownish black, it indicates the presence of melanin or homogenistic acid (a rare disorder).
- If it is blue to green, it is a liver disorder.
- Usually, it is clear, sometimes, it is cloudy.
- Sometimes, it is turbid due to the presence of WBCs (White Blood Cells), epithelial cells.
- Sometimes, it is hazy due to mucus.
- Smoky, due to red blood cells.
- Milky due to chyle (lymph).
- Usually acidic pH range 4.5 – 7.5.
- If pH less than 4.7 it is more acidic.
- If pH more than 7.5 it is more alkaline.
- Usually, it is aromatic in normal conditions.
- It has a fruity odor in diabetes.
- Ammoniacal odor in cases of urine retention.
- Foul smelling due to urinary tract infection.
- Usually, there is no or very little formation of sediment in normal conditions.
- If pus cells, red blood cells, cysts or epithelial cells are present, the sedimentation rate ranges from moderate to high.
- Usually varies from 1.003 to 1.060.
- A low special gravity indicates diabetes insipidus or kidney infection (chronic).
- High specific gravity indicates diabetes mellitus or acute kidney infection.