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These can be categorized into three groups of tests
Group I Tests
These tests when performed give us an idea of the severity of diabetes mellitus.
1. Blood sugar (F – fasting) 2. Blood sugar (post–prandial (PP) – Two hours, after lunch. 3. Urine sugar (F)
4. Urine sugar (PP) 5. Urine ketone bodies 6. Blood urea nitrogen Group II Tests
These tests when performed gives us an idea of the disturbed lipid (fat) metabolism and atheroma (it is an abnormal condition where walls of arteries are clogged with fatty tissue). Serum (fasting) sample is required of these tests.
1. Serum total cholesterol 2. Serum HDL cholesterol 3. Serum total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio 4. Serum triglycerides Group III Tests
These tests are performed in acidosis (a serious condition in which the body’s acid – alkali balance is disturbed) and ketosis (in this, excessive amounts of ketones are formed when fat is used instead of sugar to provide energy (Ketone is a substance which results during the breakdown of fats and fatty acids into carbon dioxide and water). These tests are done to know the acid-base balance of the body.
1. Blood pH 2. Serum bicarbonate 3. Serum sodium, potassium and chlorides 4. Blood gases (PCO2, PO2) All these tests in Group III help in determining uncontrolled diabetes with ketosis known as Diabetic Ketoacidosis. It is characterized by electrolyte imbalance, and extremely high blood sugar levels frequently resulting in coma.