Based on presence of any one of the following Cardinal signs.
|Sr. No||Cardinal Signs of Leprosy||Method of Eliciting|
|1||Hypopigmented or reddish
Skin lesion(s) with definite loss of sensation
|Anaesthesia on the patch to be elicited by testing for touch, pain and temp. sensation|
|2||Thickening of peripheral nerves with loss of sensation and weakness of the muscles of the hands, feet or face||Examination of peripheral nerves e.g 1) Greater Auricular 2) Radial 3) Ulnar 4) Median 5) Lateral Popliteal 6) Posterior Tibial etc.|
|3||Demonstration of Mycobacterium Leprae (M.leprae) in the lesions||Acid fast staining and examination Under oil immersion microscope|
Pre–requisites of Good Clinical Examination
- Assurance & counseling of patients and/or family.
- Essentially in good daylight.
- Exam. of whole body with courtesy & respect to patient's privacy.
- Examination of female patient as far as possible by a female doctor or at least in the presence of one female.
- The location of skin lesions be marked on a simple body outline.
- One or few typical skin lesions should be tested for loss of sensation.
- The main peripheral nerve trunks should be palpated to certain any thickening and tenderness.
- Eyes, hands and feet should be examined.
|Clinical Manifestation||PB (Pauci–Bacilli)||MB (Multi Bacillary)|
|Skin Lesion||Upto 5 lesion||6 and above|
|Nerve involvement||No nerve involvement or only one nerve involvement||more than one nerve trunk involvement|