- BCG: Vaccine for tuberculosis.
- OPV: Oral Polio vaccine.
- DPT: Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus vaccine.
- TT: Tetanus toxoid.
- DT: Diptheria and tetanus.
|a) For Infants At Birth (for Institutional deliveries)||BCG and OPV–O dose|
|At 6 Weeks||BCG (if not given at birth)
DPT–1 and OPV–1
|At 10 Weeks||DPT–2 and OPV– 2|
|At 14 Weeks||DPT–3 and OPV– 3|
|At 9 months||Measles|
|b) At 16–24||DPT and OPV|
|c) At 5–6 years||DT–the second dose of DT should be given at the interval of one month if there is no clear history or documented evidence of previous immunization with DPT.|
|d) At 10 & at 16 years||Tetanus Toxoid–The second dose of TT vaccine should be given at an interval of one month if there is no clear history of documented evidence of previous immunization with DPT, DT or TT vaccine.|
|e) (For pregnant Women)Early in pregnancy||TT–1 or Booster|
|One month after TT–1||TT–2|
Immunization and Side Effects
Most killed bacterial vaccines (e.g. typhoid) cause some local and general reactions. The local reactions, which usually occur at the site of injection include pain, swelling, redness, tenderness and development of a localized abscess. The general reactions may be fever, malaise and headache. Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and live polio vaccine cause little reactions. Hypersensitivity and vaccination: Present day vaccines are highly purified and the incidence of hypersensitive reactions is very rare. Sometimes the sensitivity may be to some of the antibiotics used for preservation.
Reactions due to faulty techniques. The risk of adverse reactions can be reduced by proper sterilization of syringes and needles, by proper selection of the subject and the product, and if due care is exercised in carrying out the procedure. Some vaccines have to reconstituted (i.e. mixing of vaccine and dilutants) before use. e.g. Measles and BCG. These should be reconstituted only with the dilutant supplied by the manufacturer. After the immunization reconstituted vaccines should never be used again. Neurological involvement: Involvement of the nervous system resulting in encephalitis is rare. The condition is called post–vaccinal encephalitis. It is important to note that live vaccines should not be given to pregnant women for there is a risk of harm to the fetus. e.g. rubella.