When you breastfeed, your body releases a hormone called prolactin. If the level of prolactin is high enough, your body will not release an egg. You release enough prolactin to protect against pregnancy as long as your baby is under six months, your period has not returned, and breastfeeding is the baby’s primary feeding (you feed your baby breast milk day and night and about 9 out of 10 feedings are breast milk).
But if the level of prolactin decreases, your body will release an egg. If you start giving your baby formula or foods other than breast milk, your level of prolactin will decrease. Also, after your baby is 6 months old, the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding decreases. When your period returns, it is a signal that you are or are about to be fertile, and can become pregnant.
Contratab The pill has many benefits in addition to prevent pregnancy. Contraceptive Pills For example, it protects against some cancers. There are also some side effects, most of which are experienced in the first few months and disappear as your body becomes used to the pills. On a long–term basis, the pill is considered to be very safe for most women. Serious side effects are rare. However, for women with problems such as high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes, there may be some risk associated with oral contraceptives. Finally, all women, but particularly older women, should take the oral contraceptive which contains the least amount of estrogen and progestin compatible with their needs, because lower doses have fewer side effects.
Advantages of Contraceptives Pills
Pills decrease a woman’s risk for cancer of the ovary and cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer). Pills also lower the risk of developing benign breast masses (breast masses which are NOT malignant) and ovarian cysts. They decrease menstrual cramping and pain. Combined pills reduce menstrual blood loss and the risk for anemia.
Acne often improves in women taking combined birth control pills. Many women enjoy sex more when taking birth control pills because they know they are less likely to get pregnant.
Some clinicians will allow 3 to 6 months of pills without a pelvic examination.
Disadvantages of Contraceptives Pills
- Pills do not protect you from HIV or other infections. Use a condom if you may be at risk. You have to remember to take one pill every day.
- Nausea and/or spotting are two problems women may have the first month on pills. Pills tend to make periods short and scanty. You may see no blood at all. Most women like this when they understand it is common.
- Some women taking combined pills may experience side effects such as headaches, depression or decreased enjoyment of sex.
- You must use a backup contraceptive for 2 weeks if you have missed pills and are uncertain of the number that you have missed.
- Serious complications such as blood clots may occur but are very rare.
- Pills require a prescription and can be expensive.
- Pills may promote growth of breast cancer but probably do not cause breast cancer.
- They may lead to higher rates of one type of cervical cancer.
What Foam is?
Contraceptive Foam is a vaginal spermicide, which is placed into the woman’s vagina using an applicator. It has two contraceptive effects. it kills or destroys sperm (which is why it is called “Spermicidal”) and it prevents sperm from reaching the egg by blocking the opening to the cervical canal.
Among typical couples who initiate use of vaginal spermicidal, about 25% will experience an accidental pregnancy in the first year. If vaginal spermicidals are used consistently and correctly, about 6% of couples will become pregnant.
- Foam gives the woman control over contraception.
- It is available over the counter without a visit to a clinician.
- Foam can be put into the vagina up to 20 minutes before sexual intercourse and is effective immediately.
- Foam is safe. There are no hormones involved. It is immediately reversible.
- The man’s penis can remain inside the vagina after ejaculation.
- Foam adds lubrication and moisture
- Foam reduces the risk of getting some sexually transmitted diseases.
- Contraceptive foam can be irritating to the vagina and some people feel that it is messy.
- It may not be protective against HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). If protection against infection is important, use condoms.
- Some women do not like putting an applicator into the vagina.
- Sometimes you can’t be sure if there is enough foam left in the container to provide protection during the next act of sex. Keep an extra container of foam handy.
- The taste of foam can be unpleasant.
- Some brands of spermicidal foam are sold in pre–measured, ready to use applicators. If the foam is sold in a separate container, shake the can of foam well before using (about 20 times). Follow the package instructions for filling the applicator.
- Gently insert the applicator completely into the vagina, then withdraw it about one–half inch. Depress the plunger fully, then withdraw it.
- Two full applicators of foam should be inserted no more than 1/2 hour before each act of intercourse. If a condom is used in addition to the foam, only one full applicator of foam is necessary.
- After intercourse, a mini–pad or a panty–liner may be used if the foam drips out. If you decide to douche, wait at least eight hours after intercourse before doing so.
- Practice putting foam into your vagina in advance. This will make it easier at the time of intercourse.
- Complete information about this contraceptive is available from your clinician or from the package insert accompanying the foam.
- Foam is sold at most drugstores and some supermarkets.
Copper T is a small device that is placed in the uterus. The uterus is where the baby develops if you become pregnant. There is some copper in the arms of the copper IUD. The copper IUD slowly allows copper into the uterus, which helps prevent pregnancy. It does this in two ways. First, it stops the sperm from making their way up through the uterus into the tubes. Second, if sperms do reach the egg, it makes it harder for the sperm to fertilize the egg. However, if an egg does become fertilized, copper would also stop the fertilized egg from successfully implanting in the lining of the uterus. Copper IUDs (intra uterine devices) provide protection for eight to ten years, or until they are removed.
Advantages of the Copper T
- It is effective for at least 10 years.
- Only 2 out of 100 women using a Copper T for 10 years will become pregnant.
- The Copper T IUD prevents ectopic pregnancies.
- It is far more readily reversible than tubular sterilization or vasectomy.
- The Copper T is very cost–effective over time.
- It is convenient, safe and private. All you have to do is check for the strings each month.
- The Copper T IUD may be used by women who cannot use birth control pills which have estrogen.
- It may be used by breast–feeding women.
- The Copper T may be inserted immediately following the delivery of a baby or immediately after an abortion.
- There may be cramping, pain or spotting after insertion.
- The number of bleeding days is slightly higher than normal and menstrual cramping may increase. If your bleeding pattern is bothersome to you, contact your clinician. There are medications which may give you a more acceptable pattern of bleeding and cramping.
- The Copper T IUD provides no protection against sexually transmitted infections. Use condoms if you are at risk for transmitted infections.
- The initial cost of insertion is high.
- The Copper T must be inserted by a doctor, nurse practitioner, nurse midwife, or physician's assistant.
- A small percentage of women are allergic to copper.
Diaphragm is a rubber cup, which is placed into the woman’s vagina. It blocks the opening to the uterus so that the man‘s semen cannot enter the uterus and reach the egg. Some sperm may get around the diaphragm, so it should always be used with a spermicide that is placed on the diaphragm to kill sperm.
Advantages of using a diaphragm
The diaphragm is fairly effective and gives the woman control. When used correctly, only 6 couples in 100 become pregnant the first year using a diaphragm.
The diaphragm can be put in several hours before initiation of sexual activity.
Your partner can put it in as part of love–making.
The diaphragm is safe and contains no hormones. Thus, there are no hormonal side effects. The penis can remain inside the vagina after ejaculation. Intercourse during a woman's period is less messy with a diaphragm because the diaphragm holds back menstrual blood.
Disadvantages of Diaphragm
- You must be fitted for a diaphragm by a clinician.
- Insertion of the diaphragm may interrupt sex.
- You must remember to take your diaphragm with you on vacations or trips.
- Use of the diaphragm increases your risk for urinary tract infections.
- Some women find the diaphragm unattractive.
- If you do not like touching your vagina, the diaphragm may not be a good method for you.
- It is difficult for some women to insert a diaphragm correctly.
- If left in for too long, the diaphragm slightly increases your risk for a very serious infection called toxic shock syndrome. Don’t leave your diaphragm in for more than 48 hours.
- The diaphragm may slip out of place during sex. If you change positions, you may want to check to see that the diaphragm is still covering the cervix.
- After putting it in, you have to check to be sure the diaphragm is covering the cervix.
- A new fitting may be necessary after having a baby, abortion, miscarriage, or gaining 15 pounds.
- The diaphragm must be left in place 6 hours after the last act of intercourse.
Tubular Sterilization is a surgical procedure which blocks the fallopian tubes. Eggs are released in the ovaries, then travel through the fallopian tubes to the uterus. After this operation your eggs will have no way to get to your uterus. And the man’s sperm will have no way to get to your egg. This prevents pregnancy.
Advantages of Tubule Sterilization
- It is a fairly simple operation which is safe and permanent.
- Nothing must to be taken daily or used at the time of sexual intercourse.
- Tubule sterilization does not affect sex drive or ability to enjoy sex.
- It is cost–effective in the long run.
- Tubule sterilization requires minor surgery.
- There may be some pain or discomfort for several days after the operation.
- There is no easy way to check after tubule sterilization to see if the procedure has taken effect
- Tubule sterilization is very effective but not fully. The failure rate is 1–5% during the first 10 years after the operation. If you think that you are pregnant after having a tubule sterilization, return to the clinic immediately. Should a pregnancy occur, there is an increased chance that the pregnancy will be outside your uterus (an ectopic pregnancy).
- It is difficult to reverse this operation if you want to become pregnant at a later time.
- The operation to reverse tubule sterilization is highly technical, expensive and the results cannot be guaranteed.
- Sterilization will not protect you from HIV or other infections. Use a condom if you or your partner are at risk.