Malaria is an ancient disease as old as human civilization. Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind. Man and Malaria seem to have evolved together and it has been known to mankind for millennia. It was always part of the ups and downs of nations; of wars and of upheavals. Mentions of this disease can be found in the ancient Chinese, Indian and Egyptian manuscripts. The disease supposedly had its origins in the jungles of Africa, where it is still very much rampant.
Malaria has always & will remain as Public Health Problem in Maharashtra, Jeopardizing the development of State on account of heavy morbidity & mortality. At the time of independence, estimated annual incidence of malaria in the country was 75 million cases with 0.8 million deaths. Thus economic loss was enormous & estimated to run into Hundreds Crores of Rupees every year.
Considering this, National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) was launched in 1953. Spectacular success of NMCP enthused health planner to convert into Eradication Programme (NMEP) in 1958. The success achieved by NMEP was short lived; due to various constraints like financial, logistic, administrative and technical. Resurgence of malaria after 1964, reaches it’s peak in 1975, when State recorded 712 thousand malaria cases. To overcome this situation, Modified Plan of Operation was introduced in 1977.
This led to significant reduction in malaria incidence which has been maintained upto 1986. Since then, there is gradual increase in incidence along with increase in mortality. During 1975, 0.7 million cases of malaria were reported in the state. State responded this challenge by adopting Modified Plan of Operation from 1977 and malaria was once again controlled in the state, which is revealed by the fact that during the year 1986 only 47 thousand malaria cases were reported. This achievement did not last longer. During 1995–96 Malaria outbreaks and deaths due to malaria were reported from tribal parts of the state. In this year there were about 380 thousand malaria cases and 242 death due to malaria.
Reasons of resurgence in 1995 are as under
- Unplanned growth of Urban area.
- Absence of Bye–laws in Municipal Council/Corporation.
- Rapid industrialization.
- Labour aggregation at project site.
- Population movement across the border.
- Inadequate health service in Tribal area.
- Suspected insecticide and drug resistance.
World Bank Assisted Enhanced Malaria Control
World Bank Assisted Enhanced Malaria Control Project is being implemented in 16 tribal districts in the State, in addition since 2005–06 three districts viz. Ratnagiri, Sangli & Akola have been included in the project. District Malaria Control Societies are established for the implementation of the project in tribal area of the district. The State Malaria Control Society is established during December 2001 for more active implementation of the project. The financial assistance is given mainly on the following item
- Material & Equipments, Petrol Oil etc., Telephone bills, Payment of spraying staff & honorarium to Malaria Link Volunteers.
- Officers/Staff training.
- Health education.
Malaria Control Programme is being implemented in the State since 1953. The mile stones of the programme are as under
|1953||National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP).|
|1958||National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP).|
|1977||Modified Plan of Operation (MPO).|
|1979||Multipurpose Worker Scheme (MPW Scheme).|
|1995||Implementation of Malaria Action Plan–1995 (MAP – 95).|
|1997||Launching of World Bank Assisted Enhanced Malaria Control Project in tribal districts of the State (EMCP).|
|2000||National Anti Malaria Programme (NAMP).|
|2004||National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP).|