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Laparoscopy is a procedure which allows the direct visual examination of intra–abdominal organs including large surface areas of the liver, gallbladder, spleen, peritoneum, and pelvic organs. Laparoscopy allows surgeons to obtain information about staging of disease.

A number of procedures can be performed using microlaparoscopes and 2–3 mm instruments. Typically, the incisions required to place these small instruments need no sutures to close and leave very small, if any, scars on the abdomen. If larger instruments (such as 10–12mm diameter instruments) are needed, they are placed through the umbilicus (belly button), where scars will not be noticed.

Indications of Laparoscopy
  • Liver tumors.
  • Detection and staging of lymphoma, pancreatic, gastric, or esophageal cancer.
  • Liver disease.
  • Ascites.
  • Abdominal or pelvic pain of unknown origin.
  • Fever of unknown origin.
  • Young female with possible appendicitis.
Contraindications of Laparoscopy
  • Ruptured diaphragm.
  • Uncooperative patient.
  • Mechanical or paralytic ileum.
  • Generalized peritonitis.
  • Severe cardio–pulmonary disease.
  • Large hiatus hernia.
  • Abdominal wall infection.
  • Multiple surgical scars.
  • Pregnancy.
Complications with Laparoscopy
  • Cardiac arrhythmias.
  • Hemodynamic instability due to decreased venous return.
  • Bleeding.
  • Laceration of a solid organ.
  • Vascular injury.
  • Gas embolism.

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