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Mitral Valve Prolapse
The mitral valve regulates the flow of blood from the left atrium (upper–left chamber) to the left ventricle (lower–left chamber). Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a defect in the closing of the mitral valve that causes a backflow of blood into the left atrium.
MVP is often called click–murmur syndrome because the incomplete closure of the valve creates a clicking sound followed by a murmur, which indicates mild–to–moderate MVP.

Causes of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is the most frequently diagnosed form of valve disease. It also runs in families. Some forms of MVP have been associated with Marfan syndrome, a degenerative connective tissue condition characterized by long bones and hyperflexible joints. Most persons with MVP are small–framed or those who have minor chest wall deformities, scoliosis, or other skeletal disorders.
Mitral Valve Mitral Valve
Symptoms of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Most persons with Mitral Valve Prolapse do not have symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Most of the time, Mitral Valve Prolapse is not a serious condition, although some patients report palpitations or sharp chest pain. Patients with MVP should consult a physician about taking antibiotics before dental procedures or general surgery to prevent infection of the valve, especially if patients have mitral regurgitation or thickened valve leaflets.

Risks of Mitral Valve Prolapse
Occasionally, Mitral Valve Prolapse leads to a condition known as mitral regurgitation or insufficiency. This means a large amount of blood is leaking backward through the defective valve instead of continuing in the normal direction. Mitral regurgitation can result in the thickening or enlargement of the heart wall, caused by the extra pumping the heart must do to compensate for the backflow of blood. Mitral regurgitation sometimes causes fatigue or shortness of breath. The condition can usually be treated with medication, but a few people require surgery to repair or replace the defective valve.

Treatment for Mitral Valve Prolapse
Most of the time, MVP is not a serious condition, even though some patients report palpitations or sharp chest pains. Most patients require no treatment, except for antibiotics to prevent infections that can occur after surgery or dental procedures. Mitral Valve Prolapse is not a serious condition and should not prevent a person from living a productive life, but mitral valve prolapse should be monitored regularly by a physician.

Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation (also called mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence) occurs when the mitral valve allows a backflow of blood into the left atrium. Mitral regurgitation may take years to reveal itself. If it goes on long enough, however, it can cause a buildup of pressure in the lungs or an enlargement of the heart that eventually will lead to symptoms.

Causes of Mitral Regurgitation
Mitral regurgitation is rarely present at birth and is usually caused by disorders that weaken or damage the valve. The most common causes of mitral regurgitation in adults are listed below. Symptoms of Mitral Regurgitation Patients who have mitral regurgitation should consult a physician about taking antibiotics before dental procedures or general surgery to prevent infection of the valve. Mitral regurgitation also may lead to heart failure, stroke, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), and pulmonary emboli (blood clots in the lungs).

Mitral Stenosis
Mitral stenosis is a narrowing or obstruction of the mitral valve. The narrowed valve causes blood to backup in the left atrium (upper–left chamber) instead of flowing into the left ventricle (lower–left chamber). Infants rarely are born with the disease, and most adults with mitral stenosis usually had rheumatic fever earlier in life. Mitral stenosis may also be associated with aging and calcification of the mitral annulus (the ring around a heart valve where the leaflet and heart muscle merge).

Causes of Mitral Stenosis
Adult cases of mitral stenosis usually are caused by rheumatic fever, but it can be caused by any disorder that causes narrowing of the mitral valve. The disorder is rarely congenital (inherited).

Symptoms of Mitral Stenosis
Most persons with mitral stenosis have no symptoms, when symptoms do exist, they may worsen with exercise or any activity that increases heart rate. These may include: Symptoms may begin with an episode of atrial fibrillation. Pregnancy, a respiratory infection, endocarditis, or other cardiac disorders may also trigger symptoms. Mitral stenosis may eventually lead to heart failure, stroke, or blood clots to various parts of the body.