Type 1: Also called as Juvenile Diabetes
Type 2: Also called as Maturity Onset Diabetes
Juvenile diabetes (adults get it too!) or insulin–dependent diabetes is caused by damage to the pancreas. The pancreas is an organ near your stomach and contains cells called beta cells. Beta cells have a vital job: they make insulin, a hormone that helps cells take in the glucose they need. Sometimes, the beta cells get destroyed and cannot produce insulin anymore. Without insulin, glucose stays in the blood instead of going into cells. Destruction of beta cells could be due to many reasons, but in this type, its the immune system that’s made a mistake:
- Cells that should protect you from germs instead of attacking your beta cells.
- The beta cells die.
- Without beta cells, you make no insulin.
- Glucose builds up in your blood, and leads to diabetes.
Maturity–Onset diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. When you eat, your body turns your food into glucose (sugar) to use as fuel. In healthy people, a hormone called insulin helps the glucose get into the cells. But in people with Maturity–Onset diabetes, something goes wrong. Here, a person just does not make enough insulin. Sometimes, cells ignore the insulin, and no insulin moves into the cells.