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What is Aromatherapy?

Aromatherapy is the use of fragrant, concentrated oils from parts of plants, such as their flowers, fruit, stalks, roots, and bark, for the purpose of improving a person’s health and well being.

How does it help?

Although its name suggests that it is primarily a form of aroma or smell therapy, the essential oils are, in fact, intended mainly to be absorbed into the body via the skin, through massage, the lungs, and through inhalation. Aromatherapy is widely used to reduce stress, as well as to rejuvenate and detoxify the body. It is also used to treat a wide variety of other conditions.

What precautions should be taken?

There are several things to be concerned about, when using essential oils, in addition to the purity of the oils themselves. Some individuals experience a skin reaction to certain oils when they are applied, whereas others suffer skin irritation from overuse. More serious are instances in which oils are incorrectly taken internally. Individuals with conditions like high blood pressure or epilepsy should never treat themselves, and young children and pregnant women should be especially careful.

What are the risks?

Essential oils can be dangerously toxic if taken internally. Oils applied externally also can have a powerful, unintended effect, such as producing uterine contractions in a pregnant woman. In general, it is important not to overestimate the healing properties of oils. A physician should be consulted if a critical situation occurs.

How are the treatments done?

Although many gift boutiques have taken to marketing scented candles, pomanders and potpourri as “Aromatherapy”, genuine treatments rely on the use of highly concentrated essential oils extracted from various healing herbs. In most cases, steam distillation or cold pressing from a plant’s flowers, leaves, branches, bark, rind, or roots produces these oils. The volatile, flammable oils are then mixed with a carrier usually a vegetable oil such as soy, evening primrose, almond oil diluted in alcohol before being applied to the skin, sprayed in the air, inhaled. Although one can pursue treatments under the supervision of a certified aroma therapist, many people simply use the oils as a form of home remedy. There is a notable lack of agreement on such issues as the amount of oil necessary to achieve a desired effect, the most effective method of administration, and the length of time necessary to continue treatment.

However, some of the typical approaches are as follows:
Inhalation: For problems with respiration, try adding 6 to 12 drops of essential oil to a bowl of steaming water. Place a towel over your head, and deeply breathe the scented vapors.
Diffusion: Aroma therapists often suggest spraying oil containing compounds into the air. This technique is said to calm the nerves, enhance a feeling of well being, and even to improve respiratory conditions. In any case, it freshens the air. Commercially available spray units can be used. Add 10 drops of an essence to 7 tablespoonfuls of water. If you will not be using the entire amount at one time, add 1 tablespoonful of vodka or pure alcohol as a preservative. Shake the mixture and fill the sprayer.
Massage: Rubbing aromatic oil into the skin may be either calming or stimulating, depending on the type of oil used. Some people use it as a remedy for muscles sprains and soreness. Most preparations contain 5 drops of essential oil blended with a light base oil. A higher concentration could irritate the skin.
Bathing: Use not more than 8 drops in a bath. Add the oil to a tubful of water. You can also add 10 to 15 drops to a Jacuzzi or hot tub, 4 to 5 drops to a foot bath, or 3 to 4 drops to a hand bath (for chapped skin). If you shower, after washing yourself, dip a wet sponge or cloth in an oil–water mixture and apply to your skin while you are under the spray. Do not use this technique if you have any skin allergies.
Hot and cold compresses: For muscle aches or pains, bruises, or headaches add 5 to 10 drops of oil to approximately 4 ounces of water. Soak a cloth in the solution and apply to the sore area. Other Aromatherapy techniques include placing 2 or 3 drops of essential oil on a pillow or shoe rack, heating the essential oil in a ring burner, or sprinkling the oil over the logs in a fireplace.

Caution: Never take Aromatherapy oils internally. They are extremely potent and some can be poisonous.

Which oils are used as carrier oils?

Pure vegetable oils such as soya, almond, hazelnut, avocado, etc. These have an affinity with the skin and when mixed with the essential oils they are able to penetrate the skin very quickly, unlike mineral oil, which must never be used.

How is it used in beauty therapy?

Beauty therapy essential oils can be used to treat many different skin conditions (which after all are a result of an organic deficiency) such as acne, diffused redness and even eczema with the doctors consent. They act as regulators in aging skins, tired tissues, very dry and dehydrated skins and oedematic conditions.

What are the treatments Aromatherapy hopes to accomplish?

Fragrant oils have been used for thousand of years to lubricate the skin, purify infectious air, and repel insects. However, Aromatherapy as we know it today dates from the late 1930s, when René–Maurice Gattefosse, a French chemist, dunked his badly burned hand into a container of pure lavender oil. Amazingly, the pain and redness disappeared and the burn healed within hours. In later experiments, he found that other oils also alleviated skin problems. Other French scientists who were impressed with his research, developed techniques that are still in use today.

Aromatherapy first appeared on this side of Asia in the early 1990’s, when there was an upsurge in the popularity of natural, non–toxic healing methods that cost less than conventional medications and produce fewer side effects. Practitioners in California used essential oils to treat everything from viral and bacterial infections to depression, anxiety, and sexually transmitted diseases. They insisted aromas could heal wounds, stimulate the immune system, cure skin disorders, improve circulation, relieve pain, reduce swelling, and even improve memory. According to these enthusiastic therapists, fragrant oils had the power to heal malfunctioning ovaries, kidneys, veins, adrenal glands, and many other organs. However, none of these claims has ever been scientifically substantiated.

Indeed, relatively few attempts to verify Aromatherapy’s purported benefits have ever been made at all, and of those, only a few have delivered promising results. In one trial for arthritis pain, some of the participants were able to reduce the dosage of their potent anti–inflammatory drugs. In another study, the scent of lavender successfully put insomniacs to sleep. Other research has documented improvement in cases of erectile dysfunction, and a reduction in pain following childbirth. However, attempts to prove that Aromatherapy can cure shingles have failed (although fragrant creams can reduce some of the pain). A 1958 paper extolling the ability of essential oils to fight and conquer infections could cite no positive human or animal tests.

Advocates of Aromatherapy propose a variety of mechanisms for its reported effects. The most widely accepted theory suggests that fragrances do their work via the brain. When aromatic molecules enter the nasal cavity and stimulate the odor–sensing nerves, the resulting impulses are sent to the limbic system the part of the brain that’s believed to be the seat of memory and emotion. Depending on the scent, emotional responses then kick in to exert a calming or energizing effect on the body.

Alternatively, some proponents suggest that certain aromas may work by stimulating the glands, prompting the adrenal glands, for example, to produce steroid–like hormones that fight pain and inflammation. Whatever the truth of the matter, aroma therapists assign specific properties to each essence.

Here are typical claims for some of the more common essential oils:
Lavender: Heals burns and cuts, destroys bacteria, relieves depression, inflammation, spasms, headaches, respiratory allergies, muscle aches, nausea, menstrual cramps, soothes bug bites, lowers blood pressure.
Peppermint: Alleviates digestive problems, cleans wounds, decongests the chest, relieves headache, neuralgia, and muscle pain. useful for motion sickness.
Eucalyptus: Lowers fever, clears sinuses, has antibacterial and antiviral properties, relieves coughs, useful for boils and pimples.
Tea Tree: Fights fungal, yeast, and bacterial infections, useful for skin conditions such as acne, insect bites, and burns, helps clear vaginitis, bladder infections, and thrush.
Rosemary: Relieves pain, increases circulation, decongests the chest, relieves pain, indigestion, gas, and liver problems, lessens swelling, fights infection, helps alleviate depression.
Chamomile: Reduces swelling, treats allergic symptoms, relieves stress, insomnia, and depression, useful in treating digestive problems.
Thyme: Lessens laryngitis and coughs, fights bladder and skin infections, relieves digestive problems and pain in the joints.
Tarragon: Stimulates digestion, calms neural and digestive tracts, relieves menstrual symptoms and stress.
Everlasting: Heals scars, reduces swelling after injuries, relieves sunburn, fights infections such as bronchitis and flu, treats pain from arthritis, muscle injuries, sprains and strains, tendonitis.

Caution: Many essential oils can trigger bronchial spasms. If you have asthma, do not use any form of Aromatherapy without first consulting your doctor. If you have any skin allergies, do not use essential oils in your bath. To check whether you are allergic to an oil, place one drop on the inside of your elbow and wait 24 hours to see if it produces a reaction. As with any medication, it’s best to avoid aroma therapy during pregnancy. Be especially wary of sage, rosemary, and juniper oils. These herbs have been known to cause uterine contractions when taken in excessive amounts. Infants and young children are especially sensitive to potent essential oils. Keep the oils away from their faces. Do not use peppermint oil on children under the age of 30 months.

Side effects: Because essential oils are highly concentrated, taking them internally can easily lead to a toxic overdose. Do not ingest even the tiniest amount without your doctor’s approval. Except for lavender, do not use any highly concentrated, undiluted oils on your skin. Be careful to keep the oils away from your eyes. Close your eyes while inhaling aromatic vapors. Many essential oils will cause skin irritation if used too frequently. They can also increase your sensitivity to sunlight, making it easier to burn. Excessive inhalation of fragrant vapors can cause headache and fatigue. Remember, too, that certain oils, such as peppermint, can cause insomnia rather than relieving it.

If you do choose to pursue Aromatherapy, it is advisable to do so under the guidance of an expert. If the treatments seem to help, they generally can be continued as long as needed. However, if you develop an allergy to any of the products you are using, stop treatment immediately and seek another form of therapy. Continued symptoms, or the development of new ones, are a signal to check with your doctor. Many seemingly minor symptoms can be evidence of a serious underlying problem. You owe it to yourself to get a professional diagnosis whenever your condition changes for the worse.

How do essential oils work on the skin?

When applied to the skin the essential oils have a great influence in regulating the activity of the capillaries and restoring vitality to the tissues. So they repair tissues very quickly.

How are the essential oils used in the therapy?

In beauty therapy, the essential oils must be blended with a bland oil which does not have any healing properties but they act as a carrier for the essences.