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Causes
  1. Recurrent urinary tract infection due to organisms like proteus,pseudomonas which produce urea & result in stasis of urine
  2. Diet rich in red meat,fish,calcium,tomatoes,milk,spinach,etc
  3. Diet deficient in Vitamin A
  4. Hot climate with decreased water intake result in calcium oxalate stones(due to dehydration)
  5. Gout & hyperparathyroidism
  6. Inadequate urinary drainage & urinary stasis
Types
  1. Calcium oxalate stones
  2. Phosphate stones
  3. Uric acid stones
  4. Cystine stones
Signs & Symptoms
  1. pain & tenderness at renal angle
  2. features of urinary tract infection like fever with chills,burning urination,increased frequency,etc
  3. Heamaturia
  4. pain from loin radiating to groin due to impaction of stone at pelviureteric junction or anywhere in ureter(ureteric colic)
Complications
  1. hydronephrosis
  2. pyonephrosis–rare
  3. renal failure–rare
Investigations
  1. Ultrasonography or USG KUB is sufficient enough to confirm diagnosis
  2. Blood urea & creatinine to rule out other causes
  3. Urine for culture & sensitivity
  4. Serum calcium & serum PTH in cases or recurrent stones
Vesical Calculus i.e Stone in Urinary Bladder
It is characterised by Auxillary Measures
  1. most common cause for renal stone formation is decreased water intake,therefore minimum water intake of 4–5 litres in a day should be the aim
  2. drinking maximum amount of water in the morning as soon as you get up
  3. avoiding tomatoes,spinach,milk & milk products may help to some extent
  4. not to hold the urine for longer periods
  5. avoid strenuous exercises
  6. avoid Vitamin D supplements
  7. barley water may prove to be beneficial
Homoeopathic Aspect of Renal Calculi
Homoeopathy has a great scope in treatment of renal calculi in acute pains as well as chronic cases

Acute pains are almost always relieved by Mag–Phos,Colocynth,Nux–Vom,Sarsaparilla,Berberis–vul, Tabacum depending upon their respective indications

If burning & frequency of micturition are prominent features then Apis–mel,Cantharis,Cannabis–sat, etc are helpful

Constitutional medicine is needed to bring about permanent cure like Thuja,Lycopodium,Nitric–acid, Medorrhinum,Calcarea–carb,Fluoric–acid,etc

Certain Mother Tinctures are of great benefit like Hydrangea,Berberis–vul,Ocimum–can, Solidago,Epigea,Prunus,etc

Above indicated medicines require strict individualisation and as each medicine has its peculiar feature,same medicine may not suit each & every case of renal calculi so consulting homoeopathic physician would be beneficial

Names of the homoeopathic medicines are given just to impress upon the mind of the readers the utility of homoeopathy in renal calculi.

Dr Vishal A Nahar
Homoeopathic Consultant