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Menstruation begins between the age of 11–13 years and stops at around 45 years of age. Menstrual disorders that commonly occur are dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB), pre–menstrual syndrome, post–menopausal bleeding, dysmenorrhea and leucorrhoea. Menstrual bleeding is often disturbing, debilitating and occasionally even critical.

Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
Menorrhagia: Excessive bleeding, but the menstrual cycle may be of normal length.
Polymenorrhea: Episodes of bleeding occurring in less than 21 days.
Oligomenorrhea: Scanty menstruation.
Metrorrhagia: Irregular uterine bleeding at any time between menstrual periods.

Pre–Menstrual Syndrome
Approximately, 40 per cent of menstruating women suffer from premenstrual syndrome which tends to occur 3–7 days prior to the menstrual period. The symptoms are headaches, nausea, irritability, fatigue, bloating in the abdomen, edema in the feet and hands, craving for sweets, depression and tenderness in breast. These symptoms generally disappear on the onset of menstruation.

Treatment for Pre–Menstrual Syndrome Treatment for Excess Menstruation (Menorrhagia, Polymenorrhea)
Dysmenorrhea
Pain that occurs during menstruation is common in about 60% of menstruating women. Sometimes, it is severe enough to interfere with normal daily activity.

Primary Dysmenorrhea
It occurs in the absence of any kind of pelvic disease. It usually starts 2–3 years after the onset of menstruation, and worsens between the ages of 17–24 years, and then subsides on its own.

Secondary Dysmenorrhea is generally due to a definite cause such as pelvic inflammation, fibroid in the uterus, endometriosis, tumors of the ovary or even presence of an intrauterine device. In all such cases of Dysmenorrhea where definite cause is known, medical intervention to correct the underlying defect will provide relief from pain.

Treatment Leucorrhoea
Leucorrhoea is not a disease but the manifestation of ovulation or a local or systemic disease leading to a discharge of whitish substance, which can occur at any age and affects almost all women sometime or the other.

The discharge often gives off a strong, offensive odor and could be a source of embarrassment to the woman suffering from it. The discharge is usually without discomfort, but may result in an itching sensation in and around the genitalia.

Treatment