- Pus Cells
Normally, a few are present. More than a few indicates bacillary dysentery or ulcerative colitis.
- Epithelial Cells
Normally a few are present. If many are present, however, it indicates inflammation of the bowels.
Normally, present only occasionally.
If many are present, it indicates bacillary dysentery or ulcerative colitis.
- Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
Normally absent. If present, it indicates lesions in the colon, rectum or the anus. If clumped, it means amoebiasis (a kind of infective dysentery).
- Triple phosphate or calcium oxalate crystals: Normally present due to indigestion of foods like spinach, tomatoes, berries etc.
- Charcot Leyden crystals: Normally absent. If present, it indicates ulcerative conditions or amoebiasis
- Hematoidin crystals: Normally absent. If present, it indicates intestinal hemorrhage.
- Normally present as residual constituents.
- Normally present as residual contents, or undigested fibers.
Normally absent. If present in a high proportions, it indicates indigestion.
Normally absent. If present in high proportions, it indicates indigestion.
- Yeast cells: Normally present.
- Bacteria: Normally gram negative are present.
Entamoeba coli cystIntestinal Protozoa
There are pathogenic and non–pathogenic protozoa found in stool.
- Entamoeba coli–cysts or vegetative form.
- Iodamoeba butschili – cysts.
- Endolimax nana – cysts.
Cilliate of Balantidium coli
- Entamoeba histolytica – cysts or vegetative form.
- Giardia lamblia–cysts.
- Balantidium coli–cysts.
- Giardia lamblia – vegetative form.
They are pathogenic in nature. The different kinds of worms found are:
- Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm).
- Trichuris trichuria (whipworm).
- Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm).
- Ankylostoma duodenale (hookworm).
- Nectar americanus.
- Strongyloides stercoralis.
Egg of Trichuris trichiura
They are pathogenic in nature:
- Taenia saginata.
- Taenia solium (tape worms).
Eggs of Ascaris Lumbricoides
- Beef tape worm.
- Pork tape worm.
- Dwarf tape worm.
- Dog tape worm.
They are pathogenic in nature, generally known as fluke:
- Schistosoma hematobium.
- Schistosoma mansoni.
- Schistosoma japonicum.