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Cells
  1. Pus Cells
    Normally, a few are present. More than a few indicates bacillary dysentery or ulcerative colitis.
  2. Epithelial Cells
    Normally a few are present. If many are present, however, it indicates inflammation of the bowels.
  3. Macrophages
    Normally, present only occasionally.
    If many are present, it indicates bacillary dysentery or ulcerative colitis.
  4. Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
    Normally absent. If present, it indicates lesions in the colon, rectum or the anus. If clumped, it means amoebiasis (a kind of infective dysentery).
Crystals
  1. Triple phosphate or calcium oxalate crystals: Normally present due to indigestion of foods like spinach, tomatoes, berries etc.
  2. Charcot Leyden crystals: Normally absent. If present, it indicates ulcerative conditions or amoebiasis
  3. Hematoidin crystals: Normally absent. If present, it indicates intestinal hemorrhage.
Vegetable Matter
  1. Normally present as residual constituents.
Animal Matter
  1. Normally present as residual contents, or undigested fibers.
Undigested Ingredients
  1. Starch
    Normally absent. If present in a high proportions, it indicates indigestion.
  2. Fat
    Normally absent. If present in high proportions, it indicates indigestion.

Other Findings
  1. Yeast cells: Normally present.
  2. Bacteria: Normally gram negative are present.
If a high percentage of gram positive bacteria are present, it indicates intestinal ulceration.

Entamoeba coli cyst Entamoeba coli cyst
Intestinal Protozoa
There are pathogenic and non–pathogenic protozoa found in stool.
Non–pathogenic Pathogenic
Cilliate of Balantidium coli Cilliate of Balantidium coli
Nematohelminths
They are pathogenic in nature. The different kinds of worms found are:
  1. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm).
  2. Trichuris trichuria (whipworm).
  3. Egg of Trichuris trichiura Egg of Trichuris trichiura
  4. Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm).
  5. Ankylostoma duodenale (hookworm).
  6. Nectar americanus.
  7. Strongyloides stercoralis.
Platyhelminths
They are pathogenic in nature:
  1. Taenia saginata.
  2. Eggs of Ascaris Lumbricoides Eggs of Ascaris Lumbricoides
  3. Taenia solium (tape worms).
The different kinds of tape worms found are:
  1. Beef tape worm.
  2. Pork tape worm.
  3. Dwarf tape worm.
  4. Dog tape worm.
Schistosoma mansoni Schistosoma mansoni
Trematodes
They are pathogenic in nature, generally known as fluke:
  1. Schistosoma hematobium.
  2. Schistosoma mansoni.
  3. Schistosoma japonicum.