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Physical Examination of Urine
Urine Examination by Uristix Method Urine Examination by Uristix Method
Introduction
Routine urine examination is detailed analysis of urine. It helps detect alterations in the composition of the urine which help in the diagnosis of many disorders.

When a sample of urine is submitted to a pathological laboratory, the following examinations are done:

Physical Examination
Volume Color Sometimes, due to the intake of some food or medicines also, one could notice a change in the color or their urine e.g. the intake of beet imparts a reddish color to urine. The intake of vitamin B capsules gives a dark yellow color to it, if rimfamycin is taken, it gives an orange tinge to the urine.

Appearance Reaction Odor Sediment formation at the bottom of a container after collection Specific Gravity
Chemical Examination of Urine
Examination
Protein Sometimes, due to an excessive muscular exercise, prolonged cold baths, excessive protein intake or vaginal discharge in the urine, the test shows the presence of protein.

Glucose Ketone bodies Bile pigments Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Additional Chemical Tests
Non–glucose Sugars Non–glucose reducing substances Nitrite
Present due to bacterial infection

Indican
Microscopic Examination of Urine
Examinations
Pus Cells Epithelial cells Casts
Granular cast in urine Granular cast in urine
Amorphous Material Crystals
Ammonium Biurate Ammonium Biurate
Bacteria Yeast cells Parasites Diabetes inspidus
It is disorder due to hormonal imbalance. Kidneys become overactive and a person urinates excessively. A person has a raging thirst and an increased appetite.

Diabetes mellitus
It is a disorder in which the body cannot make use of sugars and starches in a normal way.

Peritonitis
It is inflammation of the peritoneum – the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs.

Pyelonephritis
It is an inflammation of the kidney and the renal pelvis (the hollow cone into which urine flows from the kidney).

Endocrine glands
It is a ductless body organ which produces hormones. These hormones affect and help control various other organs.

Occult blood
“Occult” means hidden. Here blood is present in very minute traces. It is not visible to the naked eyes.