Diagnosis of Leptospirosis
- Total WBC count slightly elevated with neutrophilia.
- Rising titer of leptospiral antibodies is found from the second week onwards.
- Increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (about 60 mm).
- Increased serum creatinine.
- Liver function tests usually denote hepatocellular damage with intrahepatic obstructive element.
- Urinalysis with proteinuria.
- Hematuria and casts.
- Increase in serum bilirubin (predominantly direct) levels.
- Alkaline phosphatase level moderately elevated, as well as SGOT and SGPT levels.
- The disease is diagnosed using specific blood tests available through public health laboratories.
- In the first week of the disease, cultures from the blood or CSF are taken.
- In the second week, cultures from the urine are taken.
- Microscopic agglutination – two blood specimens must be serologically compared during an interval of two weeks, an initial titer of 1:100 or at least a fourfold rise in antibody titer confirm the diagnosis.
- Macroscopic slide agglutination – ELISA, Dot – ELISA reveals detection of leptospiral IgM antibodies.