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What are the first–aid measures to be taken in cases of drowning?
After the patient has been removed from the water, he should be given artificial respiration if he is not breathing. The mouth–to–mouth breathing method is advocated and should be used instead of other methods.
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How does one carry out mouth–to–mouth artificial respiration? Should mouth–to–mouth artificial respiration be used in all cases where breathing has stopped–whether due to drowning, suffocation, poisoning, electric shock, etc?
Yes.

Is the mouth–to–mouth breathing method of artificial respiration beneficial in cases of drowning?
Yes, but it is easier for the victim to expel water from the lungs when he is in the prone position. After water has been expelled, mouth–to–mouth breathing can be started.

Is drowning always caused by too much water in the lungs?
Not always. Many cases of drowning are caused by spasm of the larynx and can be relieved by overcoming the spasm. There are many cases on record in which life has been saved by the performances of the tracheotomy below the point of the laryngeal spasm.

Should a tracheotomy be performed by a first–aider?
No, unless it is almost first certain that medical attention cannot be obtained or that the patient will die before it arrives.

Does it help to turn a drowning person upside down and to hold him in this position?
Usually not. He will bring up water from his lungs if merely permitted to lie in a prone position.

When should artificial respiration be abandoned?
When the patient no longer has a heartbeat and is obviously dead.