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Historical Background/Introduction
Health services are mainly concerned with the well being of general masses. The availability of the Statistics related to health schemes is essential for planning & monitoring the impact of various services designed for improvement in the health status. Considering this need the responsibility of collection, compilation of Civil Registration data was entrusted to a separate Bureau of vital statistics in year 1955. After the integration of preventive & curative health services, the responsibility to handle hospital statistics was entrusted to the bureau in the year 1970.

Consequently the Bureau of vital statistics was upgraded & recognized as State Bureau of Health Intelligence & vital Statistics (SBHI & VS) from the year 1976.

Thus the main functions of SBHI & VS are collection, compilation & publication of comprehensive vital statistics for the entire state & maintaining liaison with the central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Director General of Health Services, Registrar General Cum Census Commissioner of India & State Directorates.

About the Bureau
The main activities carried out by the Bureau are Civil Registration System
Introduction & History
The history of Civil Registration System in Maharashtra State can be observed by 3 time span viz.
  1. The System prior to 1/4/1969.
  2. The System during the period 1/4/1969 to 6/2/1976.
  3. The System from 7/2/1976 & onwards.
I. The System prior to 1/4/1969
The registration & its monitoring were in the hands of the Revenue & police department, while collection, compilation & preparation of the reports on Vital Statistics, were assigned to the Directorate of Health Services, being a most immediate user of Vital Statistics data. Further the health personnel were very actively helping & also supervising registration activity.

II. The System during 1/4/1969 to 6/2/1976
With the formation of Zilla Parishad & in accordance with the provisions of section 45 of the Bombay Village Panchayat Act1958, the registration work was transferred to the Village Panchayat (VP) in the rural area of the entire State with effect from 1/4/1969. There is no change in urban area. Activity of registration is being carried out by Corporation & Municipal Councils, as previously.

III. The System from 7/2/1976 onwards
Realizing the growing importance of birth & death registration for the planning of socio–economic development, provisions for statutory registration was made in the entire country including Maharashtra under the Central registration of Birth & Death Act 1969, which was made applicable with effect from Apr. 1970 in Maharashtra. The State Rules i.e. The Maharashtra State registration of birth & death Rules 1976 were formed & notified in the Gazette dated 7/2/1978.

As per the guidelines from Govt. Of India, revised rules of Registration of Birth & Death were formed in the year 2000, known as Maharashtra state registration of Birth & death Rules 2000. These rules are enforcing from 1/4/2000.

Registration in Urban area
Registration of birth & death was statutory compulsory in all municipal & Corporation areas under the various Acts previously. After the formation of Registration of Birth & Death act 1969, the registration is made compulsory according to the Act 1969 & rules of 1976.

Medical Certification of Causes of Death
Introduction & History
Medical Certification of cause of Death is an important tool of obtaining authentic & scientific information regarding causes of mortality. The Scheme is formulated by Office of the Registrar General, India is a big step towards the establishment of a system in the country for obtaining data on causes of death. The Scheme had undergone phase – wise implementation in the State, starting from medical college hospitals. In second phase, District hospitals, specialized hospitals were covered. The office of the Registrar General had given necessary administrative guidelines regarding coverage of MCCD Scheme in both urban & rural area. Attempts are being made to cover all private & govt. hospitals since 1998.

M.C.C.D. scheme was introduced for the first time in Maharashtra State in Pune in 1951. Late on it was extended to the cities, nagpur (1957), Mumbai (1962) & Solapur (1969). the remaining urban areas of the state were covered in 1970 & onwards with the encouragement of the Director General Of Health Services, G.O.I. & with the co–operation of the director Of Municipal administration. a directive was issued to all the Municipalities towards the end of 1969 to bring into effect MCCD, in their respective areas, for certifying the cause of death under the Maharashtra Municipality Act 1965.

Survey of Causes of Death Scheme (Rural)
Introduction & History
Mortality influences the rate of growth of the population & provides a dimension of demographic perspective, which is vital for socio–economic planning. The pattern of deaths by causes, age & sex reflect the health status of the community & in turn provides a rational basis for health planning. It is not feasible to build up statistics of mortality by causes based on “Medical Certification of Causes of Death (MCCD)” due to paucity of medical institutions, & physicians in rural area. Still the percentage of non–institutional & unattended death is at higher side in the State as well as in the Country. This most important statistical gap has been bridged, to some extent by the scheme “Survey Of Causes Of Death”.
  1. The Office Of the Registrar General, India initiated in the 1960s a Scheme called as “Model Registration System” (MRS). With a view that, there should be some centers, which are to be model in Registration of vital events. The scheme was introduced according to recommendations made in the ‘Conference on improvement of Vital Statistics’ held in 1961.
  2. The Registrar General, India had launched the scheme in some States on pilot basis in 1965. Further the scheme has expanded in 10 states Andhra, Bihar, Asam, Gujrat, keral, Orisa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, West Bengal, The states Maharashtra, Hariyana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, M.P., U.P. are covered under the scheme in 1967.
  3. The scheme was renamed in 1982 as “Survey of Causes of Death Scheme (Rural)”.
  4. The implementation of the scheme has stopped by Registrar General, India in 1997 at central level & merged in the S.R.S. Scheme.
  5. The progress & data received under the scheme was satisfactory in the Maharashtra State., & there was no any financial burden, in view of this, State has decided to continue the Scheme in Maharashtra.
Present Status
  1. The Scheme was implemented in 600 H.Q. villages of P.H.C. in the State previously.
  2. The enforcement of the SCD scheme has been included in the Project Implementation Plan of Maharashtra Health System Development Project in 2003–04 & received the financial support.
  3. The implementation of the Scheme has been shifted from P.H.C.H.Q. village to village level, without changing the nos. of villages.
  4. The lists of classification of the diseases have been modified base on ICD–10. Now the frame of 109 diseases through 19 major groups have been made available to the M.O. P.H.C. to select the cause of death, based on “Lay diagnosis reporting”.



Objectives of Health Intelligence & Vital Statistics
Civil Registration System
  1. To register all events of births & deaths on de–facto basis.
  2. To publish important fertility & mortality data based on registered events.
  3. To issue certificates as a proof of birth & death events, to the people.
Medical Certification of Causes of Death
  1. To provide scientific & authentic information on causes of death related to ages & sex.
  2. To study the trends & changes in mortality pattern over the years.
Survey of Causes of Death Scheme (Rural)
  1. The important objective of the Scheme is to build–up the statistics on Most probable Cause of Death according to age & sex in selected villages by adopting “Lay diagnosis reporting method (Post Death Verbal Autopsy Technique)” through post death enquiry based on signs, symptoms, conditions, duration & anatomical site of the disease as reported by family members of the deceased.
  2. To collect the data on fertility along with the mortality information & examine the status of fertility.
  3. To produce district wise fertility & mortality rates based on information collected under the Scheme.
  4. Evaluation of Civil Registration System.
Performance
Birth
Sr Circle Registered Births: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 Mumbai 37805 32727 70532 172637 151739 324376
2 Nasik 122477 96284 218761 81454 66082 147536
3 Pune 66356 49788 116144 77973 65147 143120
4 Kolhapur 39380 29760 69140 35504 28114 63618
5 Aurangabad 35642 25955 61597 32457 27478 59935
6 Latur 46152 36468 82620 38828 32122 70950
7 Akola 51349 41858 93207 54713 45667 100380
8 Nagpur 58354 47712 106066 52338 44825 97163
Total 457515 360552 818067 545904 461174 1007078
Click here to view Birth Details

Death
Sr Circle Registered Deaths: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 Mumbai 18829 11501 30330 68656 43193 111849
2 Nasik 32660 20322 52982 17750 11603 29353
3 Pune 23217 14064 37281 25742 15938 41680
4 Kolhapur 18210 12302 30512 10903 6224 17127
5 Aurangabad 10312 6287 16599 6762 3831 10593
6 Latur 13881 8684 22565 6384 2959 9343
7 Akola 19366 12101 31467 12107 7605 19712
8 Nagpur 23697 15857 39554 17613 10248 27861
Total 160172 101118 261290 165917 101601 267518
Click here to view Death Details

Infant Death
Sr Circle Registered Infant Deaths: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 Mumbai 288 228 516 4527 3899 8426
2 Nasik 820 590 1410 1030 774 1804
3 Pune 270 227 497 1608 1083 2691
4 Kolhapur 134 116 250 791 544 1335
5 Aurangabad 194 205 399 365 322 687
6 Latur 446 334 780 291 191 482
7 Akola 513 492 1005 489 347 836
8 Nagpur 835 651 1486 713 543 1256
Total 3500 2843 6343 9814 7703 17517
Click here to view Infant Death Details

Performance of Health Intelligence & Vital Statistics
District Wise
Birth
Sr District Registered Live Births: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 NANDURBAR 11553 8596 20149 3521 2863 6384
2 DHULE 12851 9723 22574 8319 6595 14914
3 JALGAON 24392 18388 42780 22262 17067 39329
4 BULDHANA 13138 10493 23631 11258 9532 20790
5 AKOLA 6030 5007 11037 12824 10833 23657
6 WASHIM 5212 3881 9093 3302 2568 5870
7 AMARAVATI 11847 10300 22147 16937 13729 30666
8 WARDHA 6570 5326 11896 5634 4893 10527
9 NAGPUR 11263 8913 20176 28280 24578 52858
10 BHANDARA 8400 7128 15528 4311 3873 8184

Statement showing Birth Registration during January to June 07
Provisional Report
Birth Registration (SRS 19)
Sr District Monthly ELA Rural Urban Total %
1 Raigad 3875 23249 7480 7596 15076 65
2 Ratnagiri 2839 17033 6364 4735 11099 65
3 Thane 15757 94541 18633 62228 80861 86
4 Ahmednagar 7190 43137 28572 14830 43402 101
5 Dhule 2942 17654 6203 8458 14661 83
6 Nandurbar 2320 13920 1963 608 2571 18
7 Jalgaon 6320 37920 13593 20687 34280 90
8 Nashik 9037 54220 21230 21498 42728 79
9 Pune 13134 78803 18563 17460 36023 46
10 Satara 4775 28649 9244 18498 27742 97
Click here to view Birth Details

Death
Sr District Registered Deaths: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 NANDURBAR 2950 1784 4734 590 377 967
2 DHULE 4048 2492 6540 2202 1472 3674
3 JALGAON 8366 5716 14082 4233 2725 6958
4 BULDHANA 4315 2668 6983 2186 1422 3608
5 AKOLA 2461 1500 3961 2845 1556 4401
6 WASHIM 1863 1118 2981 645 322 967
7 AMARAVATI 5455 3305 8760 4226 2805 7031
8 WARDHA 3573 2318 5891 1638 1010 2648
9 NAGPUR 4629 2878 7507 10892 6136 17028
10 BHANDARA 3731 2528 6259 1162 767 1929


Statement showing death Registration during January to June 07
Provisional Report
Death Registration (SRS 6.7)
Sr District Monthly ELA Rural Urban Total %
1 Raigad 1366 8199 3622 1247 4869 59
2 Ratnagiri 1001 6007 4654 652 5306 88
3 Thane 5556 33338 6757 18758 25515 77
4 Ahmednagar 2535 15212 7590 2669 10259 67
5 Dhule 1038 6225 2295 1989 4284 69
6 Nandurbar 818 4909 113 223 336 7
7 Jalgaon 2229 13372 6602 3921 10523 79
8 Nashik 3187 19120 5547 5854 11401 60
9 Pune 4631 27789 6594 6691 13285 48
10 Satara 1684 10103 4064 5877 9941 98
Click here to view Death Details

Infant Deaths
Sr District Registered Infant Deaths: Year 2001
RURAL URBAN
M F T M F T
1 NANDURBAR 74 51 125 4 2 6
2 DHULE 118 68 186 136 103 239
3 JALGAON 210 187 397 72 66 138
4 BULDHANA 97 118 215 86 47 133
5 AKOLA 51 35 86 38 36 74
6 WASHIM 62 43 105 12 10 22
7 AMARAVATI 144 118 262 195 158 353
8 WARDHA 232 162 394 93 82 175
9 NAGPUR 90 77 167 331 250 581
10 BHANDARA 99 82 181 121 80 201
Click here to view Infant Deaths Details


Civil Registration System
In Maharashtra state the Civil Registration System has been in operation as per the legal provision of Birth and Death registration Act 1969 and as per the revised rules framed by the Government of Maharashtra in the year 2000. The registration is done by DE–FACTO method, i.e. the events – births and deaths are registered where they are occurred.

The Civil Registration System is operational in five stages as follows Registration of Vital Events
For registration of vital events, following Officers are declared as a Registrar of birth & death at various levels.
Designation of Officer Designation specified under the act Jurisdiction
The Director of Health Services, Maharashtra State Chief Registrar of Birth & Death Maharashtra State
The Deputy Director of Health Services (SBHI&VS), Maharashtra State Deputy Chief Registrar of Birth and Death Maharashtra State
The District Health Officer of all Zilla Parishad in Maharashtra State District Registrar of Birth and Death Concern Revenue district
The Dy. Chief Executive officer (Panchayat) of all Zilla Parishad in Maharashtra State Additional District Registrar of Birth and Death Concern Revenue district
The Block Development Officer of all Blocks in Maharashtra State Additional District Registrar of Birth and Death Concern Revenue Block
The executive Health Officer/Health Officer/Chief Officer of all urban areas in Maharashtra State Registrar of Birth and Death Concerned Municipal Corporation/Council
The Cantonment Executive Officer of all cantonment Boards in Maharashtra State Registrar of Birth and Death Concern area of cantonment board
The Gram Sevak or if there is no Gram Sevak, Assistant Gram Sevak of all Gram Panchayats in Maharashtra State Registrar of Birth and Death oncern area of Village/Gram panchayat
The Administrator of the specified area in Maharashtra state Registrar of Birth and Death Concern specified area

Flow of Rural Area & Urban Area Reporting System

Analysis
On every 10th, monthly reports are received at state office of Deputy Chief Registrar of Birth and Death at Pune. From rural area 43,722 villages and from urban area 257 urban units are reporting every month to this office. Approximately 2,38,000 registered events of birth/death/stillbirths are reported to this office every month. The entire data is coded and computerized. Since Sept. 2004, decentralization of data is proposed at district level from rural area to begin with.

Feed back, inspection and supervision
In rural area, the Additional District Registrar for the block i.e. BDO and the Extension Officer (Panchayat) takes the review of village registrars for reporting as well as recording of events. In the same way the District Registrar i.e. District Health Officer (DHO), takes the review of the registration activities. At district, in Zilla Parishad, a Statistical Officer and a Statistical Investigator are specifically looking after reporting, monitoring analysis and feedback activities.

At the state level Bureau, the review of all districts is taken by analyzing the registered events. The activities are monitored and feedback is given to take corrective steps in the field. Regular inspection is also carried from state level/district level/block level officers in the field. Reporting
In rural area, the registrars submit the registered events of birth, death and stillbirth to additional district registrar at respective block level. At block level the village registers are maintained and updated every month, after the collection of reports from village registrars. The reports are compiled in a simple abstract. The copy of abstract is also given to district registrar i.e. District Health Officer, for monitoring and feedback at district level. The registrars of urban area send the monthly reports directly to Deputy Chief Registrar of birth and death – Pune, and a copy of abstract is submitted to District Registrar of respective district for monitoring and feedback at district level. Deputy Chief Registrar of Birth and Death – Pune, at the state level, complies & analyses the reports and district wise monthly and annual reports are submitted to Chief Registrar of Birth and Death, Maharashtra State and Registrar General, India, New Delhi.

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Strategy: Medical Certification of Causes of Death Strategy: Survey of Causes of Death Scheme (Rural)
  1. The Paramedical staff (ANM & MPW) working in the selected villages is the important & root level worker called as “Field Agent”. The field agents are expected to keep House hold register, visit the community twice in a month & collect the data on fertility & mortality. In respect of mortality, they should contact the family members, collect the information on sign & symptoms, disease, duration of the diseased, by applying their experience in providing health services. The data collected under the scheme is according to De jury method.
  2. Field agents are expected to submit the collected information in the prescribed format to the M.O. PHC at the end of the month.
  3. Field recorder at PHC level is expected to supervise the villages selected under the scheme. He should consolidate the information received by the field agent every month. He should prepare the monthly report & submit to the Dist. level.
  4. Six monthly survey are to be conducted to detect the omissions if any, by field recorder.
  5. M.O.PHC is expected to verify all cause of death forms (C form). Based on sign & symptoms given by the field agent. He should write the probable cause of death, with the help of Classification of diseases made available to them. In case of Institutional deaths & the deaths in which any other Private Practitioners identify cause of death, MO should write the same cause of death.
  6. M.O. is also responsible for the development of technique of field agent in respect of Post death verbal autopsy.
  7. District Health Officer/Additional District Health Officer (A.D.H.O) are expected to monitor, supervise, evaluate, & verification of the scheme, time to time with the help of statistical wing at district level.
  8. Deputy Director (State Bureau Of Health intelligence & vital Statistics) is the whole in charge of the scheme at State level. He is expected to review the scheme, take corrective actions in respect of progress Further he should generate the information on mortality statistics related to Causes, age, & sex. of the scheme. Similarly District & Circle wise fertility & mortality rates in the form of State Annual Report.



Civil Registration System (CRS)
A) Registration of Births and Deaths of Rural and urban areas of the state.
  1. The Registration of Births and Deaths activity is carried out with the help of 256 Urban and 43722 Rural Centers. 100% work is expected from these centers (not only registration of Births and Deaths but submission of specific statutory obligated reports also). The efforts are being made to collect reports from all villages for 100% registration in time by contacting the Chief Executive Officer and concerning Block Development Officer in rural area. Multipurpose Health Worker, Auxiliary Nurse Midwife, Anganwadi Workers and Dais are also making attempts successfully in registration of Births and Deaths. The periodical review is taken to know the impact of their assistance in this respect in relation to the qualitative improvement in registration work.
  2. An effort had been made by this Bureau to decentralize the computerization of compilation of data at block level, regarding events registered in the jurisdiction of respective block in rural area.
  3. Meetings at various levels are conducted in rural as well as urban areas to improve the civil registration system.
    There are two types of meetings:
    1. Routine meetings
    2. Meetings of committees formed according to Government Resolution.
      Routine meetings: Annual Meeting of Chief Registrars at National level, Half Yearly Meeting of District Registrars at State level, Half Yearly Meetings of Statistical Officers of district at State level, Monthly Meetings of Medical Officers and Supervisors of Primary Health Centres at District level. Fortnightly Meetings of Village registrars at Block level.
      Meetings of committees formed according to Government Resolution: Half–yearly meeting of Interdepartmental Co–ordination committee at State level, Quarterly meeting of committee at District, Block and village level to improve Birth and death registration and vital statistics, Quarterly meeting of committee at Corporation level to improve Civil Registration System.
  4. Training: Training of newly recruited Statistical Investigators and officers, training of various software’s to health personnel, training of CRS to registration functionaries (as and when grants are available)
  5. IEC Activity
B) Medical Certification of Cause of Death (MCCD)
To improve coverage and quality of MCCD following activities are carried out.
  1. Meetings,
  2. Training
  3. Publication of data
    1. Meetings: Half Yearly Civil Surgeons at State level, Monthly of Superintendents of Rural and Cottage Hospitals at District level, Meetings of Private Practitioners and Medical Officers in corporation ares are taken as and when required by the corporation.
    2. Training: Continuous training of Civil Surgeons, Superintendents, Medical officers at Health and Family welfare Training Centres for ICD–10 and MCCD.
    3. Publication of data: Annual Publication is done on the basis of data received through MCCD.
With the help of World Bank Assistance, under Maharashtra Health System Development Project, the training of medical and paramedical personnel has been conducted to improve the quality of MCCD.

C) Survey of Cause of Death (Rural) Meeting Training Publication
The annual data compiled, analyzed & statistical inferences are published through annual report. The bureau is publishing the data through annual report from the year 2001 onwards.

D) Assistance in the work of Epidemiology
To accelerate the surveillance of epidemic disease and study related to epidemiology, the specific individual instructions to the Civil Surgeon and District Health Officers were given. Every month, collection, compilation of the information regarding causes of mortality was started since 1975–1976. The feedback is given to district health personnel, in alarming situation.

E) Health Management Information System (HMIS)
With the intention to keep the vigilance on progress of different health programmes, the Government has introduced the Health Management Information System. Health Management Information System involves information like comparative performance Status, Inter District ranking of performance and status of achievement of various indicators at State level etc.

How the programme is implemented.
Civil Registration System
This is implemented in Rural and Urban area. In case of rural area Gramsewak submits Birth and Death reports of the revenue villages under his jurisdiction to Block Development Officer (BDO). BDO submits consolidated reports to Deputy Chief Registrar, for Births and Deaths Pune In case of Urban area Exe. Health Officer/Health Officer/Chief Officer submits reports of Births and Deaths to Deputy Chief Registrar, Births and Deaths Pune. After receiving reports these are scrutinized, and computerized. At the end of the year Annual Vital Statistics Report is prepared and submitted to Higher Authorities.

Now this process is decentralized at district level. All the rural births and deaths reports will be computerized, in the office of the District Health Officer, of respective Zilla Parishad. The floppy or Compact Disc of the consolidated report will be sent to Dy. Chief Registrar, Births and Deaths Maharashtra State Pune.

Medical Certification of Cause of Death
Hospital incharge in urban area submits these certificates to Deputy Chief Registrar Pune. Recently from 1998 this scheme is extended in Rural Hospitals. After receiving the certificates causes of death are coded as per International Classification of Diseases revision 10 (ICD – X). After coding the information is compiled & analyzed. The report is submitted to Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, New Delhi. From this scheme we can observe medically certified causes of deaths by age sex in urban area.

Monthly Report of Communicable Diseases
The monthly report of 26 communicable diseases is collected from all district level officers – District Health Officers, Civil Surgeons Health officers of Corporations and identified Medical Colleges. After consolidations the report is sent to Director General Health Services Mumbai and Secretary Public Health Department, Mumbai, every month through Health Management Information System. Also this report is sent to Director, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, New Delhi.

Information on identified 194 diseases
The report of 194 diseases is collected quarterly from all District officers i.e. District Health Officers, Civil Surgeons and identified Medical College Hospitals. After consolidation annual report is sent to Director, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, New Delhi and Director General Health Services Mumbai. The morbidity pattern of the disease, prevalence in the state is known from this report.

Survey of Causes of Death (Rural)


Services to Common People
Village Level Service
Every birth or death event occurred in rural area is registered at Grampanchayat. Gramsevak or Village Development Officer does this registration. The procedure for registration is quoted in Maharashtra Births and Deaths Registration Rules 2000.

Hospital Service Service Centers available in each district
Service centers for registration of birth and death are nothing but Registrars office. In each district service centers are as follows:
Rural Area: Grampanchayat of every revenue village.
Urban Area: Municipal Corporation/Municipal Council/Cantonment Board/Ammunition Factory Hospital.

Role of NGOs
NGOs can help for improving the registration of birth and death in community. Awareness of registration is necessary especially in rural area. NGOs can arrange lectures, demonstrations on this topic in rural area.

Health Education Messages
Important Health Education Messages
  1. Ensure registration of every birth and death event.
  2. Birth certificate ensures a hurdle–free future for your child.
  3. Register the event of birth alongwith the name of child.
  4. Obtain the birth certificate with name of child.
Role of Other Sectors
Registration of Birth and Death is multidepartmental activity. In this activity Rural Development Department, Urban Development and Public Health Department are involved. Co–ordination of these three departments is necessary for effective registration.


Expected Community Participation
The registration of birth/death event is obligatory as per Registration of Births and deaths Act, 1969. Every parent is supposed to register the event of birth of their child, similarly every death event is supposed to be registered by the relative of deceased. After registration it is useful to take the certificate of birth or death for various purposes.

Birth Certificate is useful for
  1. Evidence of birthplace and date.
  2. For obtaining passport/visa, driving license etc.
  3. For admission in school.
Death Certificate is useful for
  1. Establishing the heritage.
  2. Evidence of place and date of death.
  3. For obtaining family pension and insurance claim.
Achievements of Health Intelligence & Vital Statistics
Birth, Death and Infant Death Efficiency
Year Estimated Population SRS Birth Rate Estimated Birth Registered Birth Efficiency % SRS Death Rate
1991 79476000 26.2 2082271 1607159 77.18 8.2
1992 81091000 25.1 2035384 1593276 78.28 7.9
1993 82706000 25.2 2084191 1591299 76.35 7.3
1994 84321000 25.7 2167050 1573255 72.6 7.5
1995 85936000 24.5 2105432 1642289 78 7.5
1996 87552000 23.4 2048717 1602407 78.22 7.4
1997 88964000 23.1 2055068 1635682 79.59 7.3
1998 90782318 22.5 2042602 1652244 80.89 7.6
1999 90450293 21.1 1908501 1739577 91.15 7.5
2000 95416116 21 2003738 1828027 91.23 7.5
2001 96752247 20.6 1993096 1825145 91.57 7.5
2002 99641086 20.2 2012750 1864859 92.65 7.3
2003 100903153 19.9 2007973 1863585 92.81 7.2
Click here to view full details

Vital Statistics as per (SRS)
  1. Improvement in CBR from 26.2 in the year 1991 to 19.1 in 2004.
  2. Improvement in CDR from 8.2 in the year 1991 to 6.2 in 2004.
  3. Improvement in IMR from 60 in the year 1991 to 36 in 2004.
  4. CBR is less by 2.0 for urban area than rural.
  5. CDR is less by 1.4 for urban area than rural.
  6. There is vast difference in rural & urban areas for IMR. IMR for rural area is 42 & for urban area is 27.

Total Fertility Rate
As per SRS data, TFR of state is showing slow decline over a period of 10 years. It was 3 during 1991 & reduced to 2.5 in the year 2000.
Year Total Rural Urban Year Total Rural Urban
1991 3.0 3.4 2.5 1998 2.7 2.9 2.3
1992 2.9 3.3 2.3 1999 2.5 2.7 2.3
1993 2.9 3.2 2.7 2000 2.5 2.6 2.2
1994 2.9 3.0 2.6 2001 2.4 2.6 2.2
1995 2.9 3.3 2.5 2002 2.3 2.5 2.2
1996 2.8 3.2 3.0 2003 2.3 2.4 2.1
1997 2.7 3.0 2.3        


Total Fertility Rate