Physicians must not be a party to and must speak out against torture or other abuses of human rights. Participation by physicians in the execution of prisoners except to certify death is unethical. Under no circumstances is it ethical for a physician to be used as an instrument of government to weaken the physical or mental resistance of a human being, nor should a physician participate in or tolerate cruel or unusual punishment beyond those permitted by the U.N’s Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.
Ethics Committees and Consultants
Ethics committees and consultants contribute to achieving patient care goals by facilitating resolution of conflicts in a respectful atmosphere through a fair and inclusive decision–making process, helping institutions to shape policies and practices that conform with the highest ethical standards, and assisting individual persons with handling current and future ethical problems by providing education in health care ethics. Although it is generally agreed that neither ethics committees nor consultants should have decision–making authority, they can advise clinicians, patients, and family members on ethical matters.