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External Examination

    1. Color photograph – 100% of body surface area with two snaps each of every injury with a scale and identity tag included.
    2. An X–ray of the whole body is to be taken for evidence of any bony injury or foreign bodies.
  1. Look for any deep bruises and/or injection sites and confirm them technically.
  2. Collect blood, hair samples, nail clippings.
  3. Note down all the injuries in great detail with special attention to the genitals, natural orifices, scars, keloids, scalp, teeth etc. and the marks of identification.
  4. As regards injuries – although virtually any type of injury can be inflicted, the following types of injuries may confirm or arouse the suspicion of torture:


Thee methods used are

Necklace: Burns from molten rubber dripped onto victims from motor tiers suspended overhead. Cause of death: Burns may be the actual cause of death.

Cutting or stabbing or shooting
Not a common means of torture in India but a means of execution or non–fatal punishment.

Knee capping: Shot in the knee joints/lower thighs

Clubbing or blunt injury
This is the most common form of injury. The features are however, not specific.

Suffocation and drowning
This is not common. Non–fatal practices of this kind are well known: Submarining: For instance repeated dipping of the victim&srsquo;s head under water/foul liquid such as sewage. Enveloping the head in an opaque plastic bag.

Electrical torture
This is less common in India: The means used are the mains voltage of 110 or 240 volts or a magneto delivering high voltage. The preferred sites are the penis and scrotum in males and nipples in females. However, it could be anywhere.

Injuries to the ears
Telephono: Repeated slapping of the sides of the head by the open palms. As a result, rupture of the tympanic membrane usually occurs.

This is a common method.

Sexual abuse
Common in females, usually in the form of rape

Also look for
Cyanosis, petechial hemorrhages, tympanic membranes, laryngeal cartilage and external genitalia during external examination.