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Laboratory Tests of Kidney
  1. Urine routine and microscopy
  2. Urine culture
  3. 24 hrs urinary protein excretion
  4. 24 hrs urinary calcium/phosphorous/uric acid, necessary in particular problems only.
  5. Complete blood count
  6. Blood urea levels
  7. Serum creatinine
  8. Serum Electrolytes
  9. Arterial Blood gases
  10. Serum Co2 lerds
  11. Serum calcium
  12. Serum phosphorous
  13. Serum Alkaline phosphatase
  14. Serum proteins
  15. Serum Bilirubin
  16. ALT
  17. Nowadays tests for hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and AIDS are mandatory in each renal patient.
  18. Other tests as per disease suspected.
Radiological Tests of Kidney
  1. Plain X ray chest
  2. Plain X ray abdomen
  3. Intravenous urography – Only when it is necessary. It does carry risk of kidney failure when serum creatinine is high, in diabetics and in dehydrated patient. It should be done only with specific orders from your doctor.
  4. Bone X rays – as and when ordered by doctor, as kidney diseases can affect bones as well.
  5. Ultrasonography of abdomen – should be done for
    1. Kidney size
    2. Shape
    3. Scars on kidney
    4. Ureter
    5. Bladder with post void film & full bladder film
    6. Prostate ( incase of mates)
Sonography is important diagnostic tool in kidney Diseases
  1. Computerized Tomography (CT–Scan) should be done only in specific conditions.
  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) only when your doctor ask specifically. Not a routine test.
  3. DTPA Renogram – Advanced science in nuclear medicine. Gives idea about functional capacity of the kidney. Safe even in kidney failure.
  4. Kidney Biopsy – Sometimes it is necessary to obtain piece of kidney to see under microscope. This gives a correct structured diagnosis of disease. It is an invasive procedure and caries some risk of bleeding but it is ordered only when the benefits are more than risks. This test is a gold standard with technical advance in instruments, it is now–a–days safe. Please insist that biopsy should be used for biopsy.
  5. Renal Angiography – Done to confirm diagnosis of renal artery stenosis only. Carries some risk of renal failure.