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Low level of sodium in the blood is called hyponatremia. The normal level is 140 meq/lL. Hyponatremia is seen when there is loss of sodium or excess water in the body which dilutes the sodium. Symptoms of hyponatremia depend on the rapidity with which sodium level drops. Usually, patients present with confusion, and sometimes even seizures, coma and death if levels are too low.

Hypernatremia is characterized by increased sodium level in the blood. It is more a disorder of water metabolism and is seen when the ratio of solutes to water in the body is increased.

Causes of Hypernatremia