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A Cesarean section is a surgical method of delivering a baby (or babies) through an incision made in the abdomen and then the uterus. The incision is usually made at the pubic hair line, horizontally and is popularly known as a “Bikini cut” (since the scar is usually below the area that would be covered by a bikini). In a few cases, the older vertical incision may be used. In this case the scar runs from the lower uterus to the upper part of the abdomen.

Sometimes a Cesarean Section is made before labor begins.
There are many reasons for e.g. Vertex Position or Breech Baby
Vertex Position Vertex Position
This could be in the breech position, when a baby is delivered buttocks first.
Actually, there are several variations of a breech birth:
The baby may be in a sitting position with both legs crossed (complete breech), have one foot dangling below the rest of the body (footling breech), or have both legs stretched up toward the head (frank breech). The transverse lie, an even rarer position in which the baby’s lies sideways across the uterus, usually with a shoulder resting on your pelvic opening.

How a C–section is performed
If a cesarean section wasn’t planned in advance, your doctor will explain why it’s needed now, as well as the risks of this procedure. Many hospitals will allow your childbirth partner to be present for a cesarean birth. The operation takes about one hour and involves these steps: Who’s at risk?
What are your chances of having a repeat cesarean?
About one–third of all cesarean sections are done on women who have had the procedure in a previous pregnancy. A repeat cesarean section is usually scheduled at some predetermined point in your pregnancy. Many women who had a cesarean section may be candidates for vaginal delivery. VBAC is short for vaginal birth after cesarean section, and is now encouraged for most women who previously delivered a baby by cesarean section. You may be a candidate for VBAC if the condition that necessitated your previous cesarean section isn’t present in this pregnancy (such as your first baby was in the breech position while your second one is head down); you had a low transverse incision in your cesarean section, or you haven’t developed any new condition that would rule out vaginal birth, such as placenta previa.

Other times, the decision for a cesarean section isn’t made until you’re in labor, such as when labor fails to progress, there’s an incomplete opening of the cervix, fetal distress, prolapsed cord, active genital herpes or profuse bleeding.