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Passive Movements
Movements produced by an external force when muscles are not able to perform movement voluntarily. The external force can be mechanical or manual.
Classification of Passive Movements Effects of Joint Mobilization Indications of Mobilization Contra Indications 3) Stretching
It is a therapeutic maneuver designed to lengthen pathologically shortened soft tissue structures to increase the range of motion.
Effects of Stretching Indications of Stretching Contraindications Types of Stretching
  1. Passive Stretching
    The therapist applies the external force & controls the direction, speed, intensity & duration of the stretch to the soft tissues that have caused the contractures of the joint. Passive stretching takes the structures beyond the free range of motion. The stretch force is applied for 6–8 seconds & repeated several times in an exercise session. The intensity & duration of the stretch are dependent on the patient’s tolerance & the therapist’s strength & endurance.
  2. Active Inhibition
    In this structure, the patient relaxes the muscle to be elongated prior to or during the stretching maneuver. When a muscle is relaxed (inhibited), there is minimal resistance to elongation of the muscle. Active Inhibition techniques relax only the contractile structures within muscle, not connective tissues. This type of stretching is possible only if the muscle.
  3. Self Stretching
    The patients carry out this technique themselves. Patients may passively stretch out their own control be elongated is normally innervated & under voluntary control. It cannot be used in patients with severe muscle weakness, spasticity or paralysis by using their body weight as the stretch force. This technique is carried out as an important aspect of home exercise program. Educating the patient to safely carry out the self–stretching procedures at home is important for prevention of re–injury.
Active Movements
The movements performed or controlled by voluntary action of muscles, working in opposition to an external force.