- Meat Inspection
Food animals must be free from infection. This can be ensured by their examination by veterinary staff both before and after slaughter.
- Personal Hygiene
A high standard of personal hygiene among individuals engaged in the handling, preparation and cooking of food is needed.
- Food Handlers
Those suffering from infected wounds, boils, diarrhea, dysentery, throat infection, etc. should be excluded from food handling. The medical inspection of food handlers is required in many countries; this is of limited value in the detection of carriers, although it will remove some sources of infection.
- Food Handling Techniques
The handling of ready–to–eat foods with bare hands should be reduced to a minimum. The time between preparation and consumption of food should be kept short. The importance of rapid cooling and cold storage must be stressed. Milk, milk products and egg products should be pasteurized. Food must be thoroughly cooked. The heat must penetrate the center of the food thereby leaving no cool spots. Most food poisoning organisms are killed at temperatures over 60°C
- Sanitary Improvements
Sanitization of all work surfaces, utensils and equipment must be ensured. Food premises should be kept free from rats, mice, flies and dust.
- Health Education
Food handlers should be educated in matters of clean habits and personal hygiene, such as frequent and thorough hand washing.
In the prevention of bacterial food poisoning, emphasis must be placed on proper temperature control. Food should not be left in warm parties, a few germs can multiply to millions by the next morning. Foods not eaten immediately should be kept in cold storage to prevent bacterial multiplication and toxin production. “Cook and eat the same day”, is the golden rule. When foods are held between 10°C (50°F) and 49°C (120°F ), they are in the danger zone for bacterial growth. Cold is bacteriostatic at a temperature below 4°C (40°F) and refrigeration temperature should not exceed this level.
Food samples must be obtained from the food establishments periodically and subjected to laboratory analysis if they are unsatisfactory. Continuing surveillance is necessary to avoid outbreaks of food–born diseases.