At the time of this study, 27% of CHMI-profiled programmes used technology as a core dimension of their work. The analysis by launch date of these 176 technology–enabled programmes (Fig. 1) shows considerable growth in the field of e health: only 8% of CHMI–profiled programmes launched in the early 1990s are currently using technology, compared with 43% of programmes launched in the last five years.
Fig. 1. Percentage of programmes currently using information and communications technology, by year launched
Technology–enabled programmes are emerging in all lower–income countries, as shown in Fig. 2. Southern Asia – India in particular – leads in terms of the absolute number of technology–enabled programmes, but the percentage of such programmes (out of all CHMI–profiled health programmes) is relatively uniform across regions.
Fig. 2. Technology-enabled programmes, by region
Technology solutions appear to be emerging across all areas of health, with HIV/AIDS, general primary care, and maternal and child health in the lead in terms of absolute numbers. However, ICT is more likely to be adopted in certain areas of health care, as shown in Fig. 3. For example, the majority (65%) of emergency programmes are technology–enabled, whereas only 31% of HIV/AIDS programmes use ICT.
Fig. 3. Technology-enabled programmes, by health focus
Technology–enabled programmes currently receive funding from a variety of sources (Fig. 4), but 47% of the 176 programmes rely primarily on donors. The government is the main source of funding for 22% of the programmes, and out–of–pocket payments (patient fees), for 25%.
Fig. 4. Technology-enabled programmes by primary source of funding