What is Acute Glomerulonephritis?
Acute Glomerulonephritis is a condition which is characterized by:
- Decreased urine output: oliguria.
- Blood in urine which turns it into a smoky color.
- Red cell casts in urine.
- Swelling of hands or feet due to fluid retention.
What are the causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis?
Acute glomeruluonephritis can be caused by any of the following:
- Infections: Streptococci, Hepatitis C
- Immunological: Lupus and Vasculitis
- IgA Nephropathy
What is the treatment of acute glomerulonephritis?
- Restrict salt and water intake.
- Use of diuretics to control excess fluid accumulation.
- Blood pressure lowering agents as necessary.
Generally steroids or other agents are not used.
What is the prognosis of acute Glomerulonephritis?
It depends on the underlying conditions which caused it. Usually if it is secondary to a streptococcal infection the prognosis is very good.
What is IGA Nephropathy?
IGA nephropathy is a condition which is caused by deposition of immunoglobin( IGA) in the glomerulus The condition was first described long back in 1968 by Berger and Hinglais. It is also known as Bergers disease and is the most common Glomerulonephritis the world over. The disease is more common in males.
What causes this nephritis?
Exact cause is still a matter of speculation. It is thought that it may be secondary to some viral infections which triggers the immune system to excessively produce the antibodies which finally lodge in the kidneys.
Is renal biopsy required to make the diagnosis?
Yes. A biopsy is generally done to confirm the diagnosis.
How do patients usually present?
Most patients usually present with episodes of presence of small or large amounts of blood in the urine and it may be associated with some protein urea. In some patients the blood pressure is elevated.
Is this IGA nephropathy treatable?
Many forms of treatments have been tried including steroids face oil etc. which have independently shown some beneficial effect in the control of the disease. Generally, male patients who have high blood pressure, the renal failure progresses in whom these treatments may be tried.
What is Lupus Nephritis?
Systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE is an auto immune disease and it is characterized by abnormalities by immune system and the organ which is targeted are the skin, joints, nervous system, the kidneys, and the blood. The condition is called lupus nephritis when the kidney is affected by the disease.
Is there any treatment available for lupus nephritis?
Yes. It should however be remembered that a therapy is guided by doing a renal biopsy and classification of the lesions usually guides therapy. Whenever therapy is required usually steroids are used and in addition many nephrologists also use cyclophosphamide. Usually these patients have to receive these agents for a period of about 6 to 12 months.
“I have been diagnosed with lupus nephritis. Will I end up on dialysis”?
Those who do not have advanced lesions on the biopsy will respond well to treatment. The Patients with advanced lesions will not have a good outcome. Only a small minority will go on to have complete renal failure requiring dialysis or a transplant.
Can patients with lupus nephritis on dialysis be transplanted?
Yes. These patients can be transplanted and the rate of recurrence of the disease in the transplanted kidney is usually not so common.