Testing for Diabetes
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It is a simple blood test taken after eight hours of fasting. FPG levels are considered normal up to 110 mg.dl (or 6.1 mmol/L). Levels between 110 and 125 are preferred to as impaired fasting glucose which is considered to be a risk factor for developing diabetes type 2 and its complications. Diabetes is diagnosed when FPG levels are 126 mg/dl or higher on two different days.
Glucose Tolerance Test
A blood test is then taken two hours later after drinking a special glucose solution. Normally, blood increases modestly after drinking the glucose beverage and decreases after two hours. In the diabetic, the initial increase is excessive and the level remains high 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/L) or more.
Test for Glycosylated Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin a protein molecule found in red blood cells, becomes modified by having glucose bound glucose bound to it. Measuring glycosylated hemoglobin is useful for predicting complications in patients with existing diabetes. The test is not affected by food intake so it can be taken at any time. It also tells the doctor whether the patients blood sugar control in the recent past has been adequate.
Screening Test for Complications
The earliest manifestation of kidney damage is microalbuminuria, in which tiny amounts (30 to 300 mg per day) of protein called Albumin are found in the urine. It should be noted, however, that only a small percentage of type 2 diabetics eventually develop kidney disease. Microalbuminuria is also a market for other complications involving blood vessels abnormalities.