Vajikarana (science of aphrodisiac)
Ayurveda in this branch of science explains the art of producing healthy progeny for the creation of a better society. Hence, deals with various diseases like infertility and conditions relating to weak shukra dhatu or the vital reproductive fluids of the body. Apart from prescribing a lot of effective formulations to provide nutrition to enhance the quality of this vital body fluids it specifically emphasized to lead a highly disciplined life.
This branch of ayurveda highlighted that celibacy is essential for good health. It helps increase the will power, intellect and memory in addition to a healthy body. The shukra dhatu has a direct link with ojas or the immunity of the body. Hence, vajikaran prescribed the therapeutic use of various aphrodisiacs and tonic preparations for enhancing the vigor and reproductive capabilities of men that also strengthens other body tissues (dhatus) like muscles, fats, bones and blood.
Bhuta vidya (psychiatry)
This branch of ayurveda specifically deals with the diseases of mind or psychic conditions, which can be caused by super natural forces. Different experts have explained the word bhuta differently. Some experts say that bhuta means ghosts and similar bad spirits who cause abnormal psychological conditions. Others say bhuta represents microscopic organisms such as virus, bacteria that are not visible to naked eye. Ayurveda also believes in the past karma as a causative factor of certain diseases. Bhuta Vidya deals with the causes, which are directly not visible and have no direct explanation in terms of tridosha.
In many cases illness is caused by the disturbance of mind, where rajas (passion) and tamas (ignorance) are supposed to be the contributing factors. These problems can be related to modern psychiatry.
Bhuta Vidya mention use of various disinfectant plants under the title of ‘Graha vidya dravya’ for fumigation to make the atmosphere germ free. In addition to this herbs, diet, use of mantras and yogic therapies like meditation and pranayama to pacify the psychological disturbances of a patient.
Rasayana (the science of rejuvenation)
All therapies in ayurveda aim to provide good all round health, so that people can engage in achieving the real goal of life–self–realization. The rasayana therapy increases the life force (ojas) and immunity of a person and thus there is a regeneration of cells and tissues in the body. Rasayana is a therapeutic process to defer old age.
The sages of ancient times led long, disease–free, and vigorous lives with the help of rasayanas. Lord Indra is supposed to have given the knowledge of these panaceas to the sages.
Literally, rasayana means the augmentation of rasa, the vital fluid produced by the digestion of food. It is the rasa flowing in the body which sustains life. Rasayana in ayurveda is, the method of treatment through which the rasa is maintained in the body. Another connotation of rasa in ayurveda is that it is a herbal medicine, which maintains the life and health of the individual, and increases his bodily and mental vigor. Herbal medicines are categorized according to whether they promote general health and longevity, sexual vigor, immunity. The three medicine categories are known in ayurveda as rasayana, vajikarana, and aushadhis, respectively. These categories are complementary to each other.
Rasayanas prepared from the herbs and medicinal plants of amalaki, haritiki, triphala, bhringaraja, ashwagandha, punarnava, chitraka and many other herbal medicines have been used from time immemorial and have been instrumental in giving long, disease–free, and vigorous lives to their users.
The human body contains some chemical elements, which are known as trace elements. Nine such elements are now recognized: cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc. Ayurveda has always been using various metals, jewels, and pearls as medicines for certain deficiency diseases. These elements are turned into calxes or bhasmas for administration in different diseases. Calxes of gold, silver, copper and iron are widely used.
Jewels or ratnas include precious and semiprecious stones, which are used as drugs because of their therapeutic properties. Major jewels or maharatnas include: diamond–hiraka, ruby–manikya, pearl–mukta, az–pushparaga, sapphire–neelam, emerald–tarksha, cat’s eye–vaidurya, zircon–gomedak, and caulk–vidruma. Uparatnas or minor jewels like sun–stone–suryakant , moonstone–chandrakanta, and crystal–sphatik were in use.
The calx of diamond is a powerful cardiac tonic and one of the best elixirs. It was applied in curing diabetes, urinary troubles, and anemia. Because of its powerful aphrodisiac qualities the calx of diamond was used to treat impotence. The calx of rubies was used to increase intelligence, virility, and longevity. It also cures disorders produced by the vitiation of the three doshas. Much more than physical health, ayurveda begins with healing genetic physical weakness. It goes a great length to ascertain these inherited hindrances in one’s being. Then it recommends practice of suitable lifestyle regimens, which guard those faults, and use herbs and essential oils to heal and mend those weaknesses. Another aim of ayurvedic is to ensure balance of the three doshas. Following these rules the rasayana branch of treatment resorts to herb preparations and oils, bodywork, meditative practices, mantra exercises and breathing/pranayama to attain total mind–body healing. Rasayana oils have properties to bring balance in specific dosha types.