Prompt & adequate
Replacement of water & electrolytes is very important. It may be given orally or Intravenously.
Early treatment, in most cases by oral rehydration therapy, can reduce the case fatality of cholera to less than 1%. If treatment is delayed or inadequate, death from dehydration and circulatory collapse may follow rapidly.
A. Oral Rehydration Therapy
For mild cases Oral Rehydration Salt is recommended
- Recommended ORS solution – WHO formula
- Compostion of ORS (net weight = 27.9gm).
|Sr no||Ingredient||Weight (gm)|
|1||Sodium Chloride IP||3.5|
|2||Potassium Chloride IP||1.5|
|3||Sodium citrate IP||2.9|
|4||Glucose anhydrous IP||20.0|
ORS packets are available at all subcentres, PHCs and other hospitals. Depot holders are established at villages & Padas in Tribal area.
The age–wise requirement of ORS is as follows
The ORS schedule is of 4 hours
|0–6 months||250 ml(1/4 litre)|
|6 months to 1 year||500 ml(1/2 litre)|
|1 year to 2 year||750 ml(3/4 litre)|
|2 years to 5 years||1 litre|
|5 years to 15 years||1 to 2 litres|
|Above 15 years||2 to 4 litres|
If the patient is thirsty and wants to drink more, allow to drink.
After rehydration has been achieved, continue giving ORS solution for replacement of ongoing losses. Plain water and home available fluids can be taken.
Signs of dehydration are to be checked until they subsides.
Introduction of ORS has reduced cost of treatment & is very effective way to reduce morbidity & mortality due to dehydration. Development of Oral rehydration therapy is a major breakthrough in the fight against cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases.
B. Intravenous Therapy
For sever cases of cholera I.V. infusion of fluid & electrolyte is required.
Age wise requirement of I.V. Infusion.
|Age Group||Quantity required||Frequency (Timing)|
|Infants||30 ml/kg body weight
70 ml/kg body weight
Next five hours
|Older Children/Adults||30 ml /kg body weight
70 ml/kg body weight
|1st 30 min
next 2 & half hours
Recommended Fluid Therapy
- Preferred: Ringer lactate solution.
- Suitable: Normal Saline (does not correct base acodosis and potassium losses).
- Unsuitable: Plain glucose (dextrose) solution.
Antibiotics are to be given as soon as vomiting has stopped – which is usually 3–4 hours of oral rehydration.
The drug of choice for treatment is
|Doxycycline (once)||–||300 mg||Adult|
|Tetracycline (4 times a day for 3 days)||12.5 mg/kg||500 mg||Adult|
|Trimethroprim (TMP)Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) twice a day for 3 days||TMP 5 mg/kg SMX 25 mg/kg||TMP 160 mg SMX 800 mg||Children|
|Furazoludine 4 times a day for 3 days||1.25 mg/kg||100 mg||Pregnant woman|
Injectable antibiotics have no special advantageous.
No other medications, antispasmotics antidiarrhoeal cardiolotrics are required. If diarrhoea persists after 48 hours of treatment resistance to antibiotics should be suspected & antibiotics are to be prescribed accordingly.
After the initial fluid and electrolyte deficit has been corrected. Oral fluid should be used for maintenance therapy. In adults and older children, thirst is an adequate guide for fluid needs. The Oral fluid intake should equal the rate of continuing stool loss.
Incubation period varies from a few hours to 5 days, usually 2–3 days