Blood is connective tissue. It circulates in closed blood vessels in the system. The circulating blood consists of erythrocytes (red blood cells), leucocytes (white blood cells), and platelets or thrombocytes in a pale yellow colored fluid called plasma. When blood is given to a pathological lab for routine check up of blood CBC – a complete blood count is performed.
|Normal Values||Hb, g/dl|
|Men||14 – 18|
|Women||11.5 – 16.5|
|Children (up to 1 year)||11.0 – 13.0|
|Children (10 – 12 years)||11.5 – 14.5|
|Infants (full term cord blood)||3.5 – 19.5|
- Decrease in hemoglobin below the normal range indicates anemia.
- It also drops in pregnancy due to hemodilution.
- An increase is also seen in congenital heart disease due to reduced oxygen supply.
- An increase in hemoglobin in emphysema.
- An increase in hemoglobin in polycythemia.
|Adults||4,000 – 10,000/cu mm (ml).|
|At birth||10,000 – 25,000/cu mm (ml).|
|1 to 3 years||6,000 – 18,000/cu mm (ml).|
|4 to 7 years||6,000 – 15,000/cu mm (ml).|
|8 to 12 years||4,500 – 13,500/cu mm (ml).|
Causes of Leucocytosis
- It occurs due to bacterial, viral, protozoal (malaria) or parasitic (filaria, hook worm) infections.
- It is also observed in severe hemorrhage and in leukemia.
- At birth, the count is high and about 18,000/cu mm (ml), It gradually drops.
- In full–term pregnancy, it goes to 12,000 to 15,000/cu mm (ml). It rises soon after delivery, and then returns to normal gradually.
- Due to high temperature.
- Due to severe pain.
- Due to muscular exercise.
- Bacterial infections like typhoid, paratyphoid, tuberculosis etc. reduces the count.
- Viral infections like hepatitis, influenza, and measles also reduce the count.
- Protozoal infections like malaria reduce the count.
- Leukemia does it too.
- Primary bone marrow depression (aplastic anemia).
- Secondary bone marrow depression (due to drugs, radiation etc.).
- Anemia (iron deficiency, megaloblastic etc.)
Late pregnancy: 23–37%.
Increase in PCV is due to polycythemia, dehydration, emphysema, and congenital heart disease.
Decrease in PCV is due to different types of anemia, hydremia (excessive fluid in the blood which occurs in pregnancy).
- Normal value: 82–92 cu mm.
- Increased MCV indicates macrocytic anemias.
- Decreased MCV indicates microcytic anemias.
- Normal value: 27–32 pg (pg = 1 picogram = 10–12 g).
- Increased value indicates macrocytic anemia.
- Decreased value indicates hypochromia.
- Normal color index: 0.85–1.15.
- Increase in the color index indicates megaloblastic anemias.
- Decrease in the color index indicates hypochromic anemia.
A) The following parasites cause malaria
- Plasmodium vivax.
- Plasmodium malariae.
- Plasmodium falciparum.
- Plasmodium ovale.
- Leishmania donovani.
- Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.
- Wuchereria bancrofti.
- Mansonella perstans.
- Brugia timori.
- Mansonella ozzardi.
- Brugia malayi.
- Lao loa.
|Mansonella ozzardi||Wuchereria bancrofti||Lao loa|
- Increased value indicates spherocytosis.
- Decreased value indicates hypochromic anemias.
|Total WBC Count||Adults: 4000–11000/cu.mm|
|ESR: (Westegren): 1 hr||Men||1–10 mm|
|Platelet Count||1.5–4.0 lakhs/cu.mm|
|Reticulocyte Count||Adults: 0.2–2%|
|RBC (Erythrocyte) Count||Men||4.5–6.5 million/cu.mm|
|Mean Corpuscular Volume||75–97 fl|
|Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin||26–33 pg|
|Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration||32–35%|
It means stretching of body tissue due to the accumulation of gas or air in the tissue or organ. Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic lung disease in which air sacs of the lungs are stretched until the elastic fibers in them are destroyed.
It is an excess of red blood cells. It may be temporary due to lack of oxygen in the blood. It may be due to heart disease or continued exposure to high altitudes. Also, if may be due to disorder of the bone marrow.
It is a kind of blood cancer.
Congenital heart disease
It means any heart disorder that is present at birth. Most common is a hole between two ventricles, either narrowing or the wrong position of the aorta (the main artery), or constriction of valves on the left side of the heart with weakness of the heart muscle.
It is a disease of the bone marrow. It produces deficiency of the red blood cells, white blood cells as well as platelets.
Also called glandular fever caused by a herpes virus (Ebstein–Barr virus).
It is a disease of the bone marrow. Here, immature abnormal red blood cells are found in the blood.
Swelling of any part of the body due to retention of fluids.
Sub–acute bacterial endocarditis
Endocarditis means inflammation of the endocardium, the inner lining of the heart. When bacteria infects it, then it is called bacterial endocarditis. All types of endocarditis, if untreated are fatal.
A decrease in red blood cells, reduced hemoglobin, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC.
A decrease in red blood cells, reduced, hemoglobin, elevated MCH and MCV with normal MCHC.