Leptospirosis is a Zoonotic disease transmitted to human being under certain environmental conditions.
Leptospira are thin & light motile spirocheats 0.1–0.2 micrometer wide & 5–15 micrometer long with hooked ends. At present 23 sero groups & 200 serovars have been recognized.
Reservoir of infection are wild and domestic animals especially rodents such as rats, mice etc. Infected urine and faeces contaminates environment and infection spreads.
Source of Infection
Leptospira are excreted in urine of infected animals for long time. Often entire life time in case of rodents.
Mode of Transmission of Leptospirosis
It can be transmitted by:
- Contact of skin, especially if abraded, or of mucous membranes with water, moist soil or vegetation contaminated with urine of infected animals.
- Direct contact with urine or tissues of infected animals.
- Inhalation of droplet, aerosols of contaminated urine.