The other main category of implant type are Subperiosteal implants, which lie on top of the bone below the gum tissue and have posts that project through the gun tissue into the oral cavity. These are custom fabricated implants that are made from an impression of the patients jaw bone. Ball attachments or other retaining devices are placed on the posts that project through the gum tissue and are used to retain a removable prosthesis (denture). Subperiosteal implants are utilized when insufficient bone is present to accommodate either a root form or a blade implant and anatomical structures limit endosseous implant placement.
Types of human bone
There are four types of bone in the human face and the length of treatment for placing and restoring implants with a “Tooth” and crown depends on which type of bone the implant is placed in. Implants have to integrate with the surrounding bone before a tooth and crown is placed on it.four types of bone in the human face
- Type I bone is comparable to oak wood, which is very hard and dense. This type of bone has less blood supply than all of the rest of the types of bone. The blood supply is required for the bone to harden or calcify the bone next to the implant. Therefore, it takes approximately 5 months for this type to integrate with an implant as opposed to 4 months for type II bone.
- Type II bone is comparable to pine wood, which isn’t as hard as type I. This type of bone usually takes 4 months to integrate with an implant.
- Type III bone is like balsa wood, which isn’t as dense as type II. Since the density isn’t as great as type II, it takes more time to “Fill in” and integrate with an implant. Six months time is suggested before loading an implant placed in this type of bone. Extended gradual loading of the implant can, however, improve the bone density.
- Type IV bone is comparable to styrofoam, which is the least dense of all of the bone types. This type takes the longest length of time to integrate with the implant after placement, which is usually 8 months. Additional implants should be placed to improve implant/bone loading distribution. Incremental loading of the implants over time will improve bone density. Bone grafting or augmentation of bone are often required.