|Lubricates food during chewing.
|Prepares fat for digestion.
|Initiates digestion of protein and kills bacteria.
|Aids in initiation of protein digestion.
|Initiates digestion of dietary fat.
|Lubricates and protects lining of stomach.
|Aids in absorption of Vitamin B12 by small intestine.
|Detergent that helps dissolve dietary fat.
|Promotes absorption of fats.
|Excreted in bile.
|Protect from bacteria and other harmful organisms.
|Protects from bacteria.
|Neutralizes acid and protects digestive enzymes.
|Water and electrolytes
|Fluid delivery system for digestive enzymes.
|Digests dietary starch and glycogen.
|Digest dietary fat.
|Digest dietary protein.
|Ileum absorbs and recycles to liver.
|Water and Electrolytes
|90% absorbed in small intestine.
|Enzymes along the tips of the intestinal cell digest prior to absorption, i.e. lactase digests milk, sugar.
|After digestion by gastric & pancreatic enzymes.
|After digestion by pancreatic enzymes & help of bile.
Hormonal Regulation and Coordination
|Hormones arrive by blood stream, secreted from a distant site.
|Controls glucose metabolism.
|Stimulates gastric acid/juice secretion and promotes growth of gastric and intestinal cells.
|Stimulates pancreatic secretion of fluid and bicarbonate, the liver to produce bile, and the stomach to produce pepsin.
|Regulates peristalsis and secretion between meals.
|Hormones released locally.
|Influences secretion, absorption, blood flow, motility, and immunology.
Hormones that can act as endocrine or Paracrine substances
|Signal for gallbladder contraction, pancreatic secretion (and growth), & satiety.
|Inhibits secretion by gut cells, nerves, and hormone secreting cells.
|Increases blood flow & stimulates secretion.
Nerve Regulation and Coordination
|Come from the unconscious part of brain or from the spinal cord.
|Nerve transmitter stimulates peristalsis and secretion.
|Nerve transmitter that relaxes gastric & intestinal muscle & decreases blood flow.
|Are within the muscle walls of the digestive system hollow organs. Intrinsic enteric nervous system acts like a local computer, Initiates patterned program responses reflexively when stimulated, and control & coordinate peristalsis.