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What percentage of the body weight is water? What is meant by the terms ICF and ECF?
Composition of body fluid. Healthy adults of the body water comprises of 60% of the body weight that exists into compartments. Intracellular compartments (present within cells) is called as the ICF contains of the 2/3rd of body water or 40% of body weight. The extra cellular( present outside cells) or ECF contains 1/3rd of the total body. Blood constitutes 1/3rd of the ECF volume.
What are the main electrolytes in the human body?
The human body mainly consists of the following electrolytes: sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate phosphate, and sulphates. These electrolytes are so distributed that some are predominantly within the cells while others are predominantly outside the cells.
Sodium, chloride and bicarbonate are mainly extra cellular and thus constitute the principal solutes of the ECF. Potassium is the principal cation of intracellular fluid and 98% of the body potassium is intracellular. The principal anions of the intracellular fluid vary and they usually include phosphates, sulphates and negatively charged micro molecules.
What is meant by volume depletion?
Loss of fluid or blood from the body is called volume depletion. Seen in loss of blood due to hemorrhage, loss of fluid from vomiting, diarrhea, or loss of excess water from the urine as with diuretics.
How do patients with volume depletion present?
The clinical manifestation depends on the degree and rapidity of the fluid that is lost. If it is mild the patients just exhibits some giddiness, weakness, increased thirst, dryness of mouth. If it is more advanced it can result in decreased blood pressure and urine output.
Are there any means to accurately measure the volume status of a person?
Usually in sick patients in the ICU catheters are inserted into the heart to directly monitor pressures such as the central venous pressure, the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure etc. These parameters provide a more accurate method to monitor the volume status.
How is volume depletion treated?
The treatment of volume contraction is by replacing the appropriate fluid. Blood is used when there is hemorrhage. Albumin and plasma infusions can be used in emergency situations. Solutions containing sodium (Normal saline, Ringer Lactate) are used in situations such as vomiting, diarrhea.
What is Hyponatraemia?
Low level of sodium in the blood is called hyponatraemia. Normal level is 140 meq/lL.