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What is the dialysis solution usually composed of?
Dialysis water is usually obtained from the municipal supply. This water is purified and additional electrolytes are added to achieve a composition of standard dialysis solution. The solution typically contains sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium chloride, bicarbonate or acetate. The electrolytes can be pre–mixed and pumped through a central delivery system or the electrolytes are added individually to each machine.
How much water is used during each dialysis treatment?
Patients are exposed to 120 liters of water during each dialysis treatment.
Is it necessary to purify water before using it for dialysis?
Yes. It is necessary to purify the water before it is used for dialysis. Important contaminant of the water include aluminum, copper, Chloramine etc. Chloramine is a chemical frequently added to municipal water supplies to control bacterial contaminations.
Is it necessary for water to be free of bacteria?
Water for dialysis need not be completely sterile because the dialyser membrane is normally an effective barrier to both bacterial and endotoxins. However the bacterial counts should be kept below 200 colonies /ml in the water by periodically disinfecting the water treatment system.
What are the different methods of purifying water for dialysis?
Methods of purifying water for dialysis:
- The Reverse Osmosis (RO) process pushes water through the semi permeable membrane with pores small enough to restrict passage of even small molecular weights solutes. Reverse osmosis removes more than 90% of the impurities and frequently will produce water sufficiently pure for dialysis.
- Ion exchange resins remove all charged irons from water supply.
- Some dialysis machine incorporate an optional hollow fiber ultra filter in the dialysis solution line to remove bacteria and endotoxins.
How can one be sure of the concentration of the dialysis solution?
To ensure that the dialysis solution is neither too dilute nor too concentrated the conductivity of the dialysis solution is checked by the machine itself prior to starting the dialysis statement. In addition, the dialysis solution temperature is also checked by the machine.