What are some of the causes of protein urine?The following are some of the causes of Proteinurea:
- Diseases affecting the glomerulus: e.g. glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome.
- Injury to kidney tubules from drugs, antiobiotics, metals or from very low blood pressure.
- Filtration of abnormal proteins across the glomerulus e.g.: Myeloma.
During routine examination a person is noted to have Proteinurea on dipstick. What should he or she do?It is important that the person should see a physician to work up the cause of the Proteinurea. Usually the amount of protein excreted in 24hrs is recorded. Some patients may even need a biopsy of the kidney.
What is pyuria?The excretion of white cells in the urine in excess of normal is called pyuria. The WBC’s are determined by examination of the urinary sediment after centrifugation of the sample of approximately 10ccs of urine.
Abnormal WBC in the urine exists when there are more than 5 White Blood Cells per high power field under the microscope. Most common cause is urinary tract infection but they can be seen in kidney stones, inflammation of the kidney such as interstitial nephritis.
What is Hematuria?Hematuria signifies the presence of blood in the urine.
How is this detected?Hematuria is detected by the use of the dipstick which includes a strip which is impregnated with orthotoluidine. The blood reacts with the reagent which changes the color of the test strip. Hematuria is usually quantified the number of Red blood cells per high power field under the microscope: Normal values: 0 to 1 in males and may be slightly higher in females. The persistence presence in males or females of even small numbers of blood cells in the urine should be investigated. It is important to remember that menstruating women may have some RBC’s in the urine. The urine examination should be repeated after the menstruation.
What are some of the causes of appearance of blood in the Urine?
- Urologic Causes: May be secondary to stones, tumors or infections.
- Patients with bleeding problems (coagulopathies).
- Glomerular causes: e.g.: glomerulonephritis.
- Diseases affecting the kidney tubules: injury from antibiotics, drugs metals etc.