Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
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These angiographies can be performed only in highly sophisticated and dedicated vascular catheterization laboratories. Intra–arterial DSA reduces drastically the dose / volume of contrast and the radiation exposure to the patient and permits use of smaller and safer catheters. Intravenous DSA can be performed as a screening procedure on an OPD basis for lesions such as carotid stenosis / renal artery thrombosis. It is also useful for left ventriculography and for postoperative angiography to check grafts and follow–up of angioplasty.