What is an X–ray?X–rays are part of the high frequency electromagnetic radiation. Because of special properties like penetration through soft parts of the body and reactions with photographic emulsion, X–rays are useful in diagnosis of various diseases.
How X –rays are useful in diagnosis?X–rays are useful in the diagnosis of diseases involving bones, lungs, gut, kidneys and gall bladder. They are used in CT–scan, Image intensifier and Mammography. They are useful in detecting the congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, degenerative and neo–plastic diseases with variable sensitivity and specificity depending on the region affected.
Here, X–rays are used by themselves. For example, as diagnostic tools for bone, lungs, intestines, kidneys and gall bladder stones diseases. However, when X–rays are used alone their diagnostic capacity is limited. Certain diseases need only plain X–rays for diagnosis.
Contrast (barium / iodine) solution and X–rays are used to get disease information. In this procedure, first contrast is given through various routes depending upon the region of investigation. Then X–rays are used/applied. Addition of contrast (barium / iodine solution) has widened the applicability of X–rays. Contrast is given either orally, intravenously or through other routes depending upon the region (part) under investigation.
‘Barium swallow’ is used to evaluate esophagus disorder. ‘Barium meal’ is used to evaluate stomach diseases. ‘Barium enema’ is used to evaluate colon disease. ‘Barium follow through’ to evaluate small bowel diseases. Intravenous contrast is used for functional and structural assessment of kidneys. Myelogram is used for spinal canal pathology. Hysterosalpingogram is used in the studies of the uterus and tubes of infertile women. An Angiogram is used in the study of lumen of blood vessels.