What is the concept of kidney “Matching” in kidney transplantation?In addition to the blood group HLA matching is done. HLA (human leukocyte antigens) are proteins present on white blood cells that are the products of closely linked genes on chromosomes no 6. There are more than 100 such identifiably proteins. They are divided into different classes A, B C and D and DR. For each of these subgroups the matching is done.
Can a kidney be transplanted if there is not a single match?This situation does arise. It is called “Zero” match. Transplant surgeons weigh the merits of the necessity and make the decision.
What are the medicines usually taken by transplant patients after their transplant?Usually after a transplant the patients are placed on medicines to prevent the kidney from being rejected. A three drug regimen is used. Cyclosporine, prednisone (a steroid), mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine.
What are the infections that can take place in the Renal transplant patients?The transplant patients has the ability to fight infections is low. Actually 75% of the renal transplant patients will suffer at least one episode of infection in the 1st year after transplant. The infection seen in the transplant patient are different than those seen in the general community. The initial infections are in the first one month after transplantations are usually bacterial. After the first month however viral infections such as cytomegalo virus, fungal infections, tuberculoses and parasitic infections are common.
What is the survival rate of a kidney after transplant?The first year survival for a living related kidney donation is about 85–90% for cadaveric is about 80%.
What are the side effects of the drugs used in kidney transplant?Steroids: for a long period of time can result in high blood pressure, weight gain, abnormalities in the glucose levels cushings syndrome, cataracts.osteoprosis and fractures. Cyclosporin can also have an adverse affect like aggravating the hypertension because excessive hair growth excessive gingival growth. It can also be toxic to the kidney especially if the levels are not monitored. Cell cept has effects on suppressing the bone marrow and the patients can have anemia, a low white cells count or and low platelet count. Cell cept can also cause diarrhoea.
What is acute renal failure?An acute deterioration of the kidney function which may be reversible is called acute renal failure.
What causes acute renal failure?From low blood pressure causing decreased blood supply to the kidney: Can be seen in a variety of conditions From excess loss of fluid from the body as in vomiting diarrhea, excess bleeding (hemorrhage) usually after surgery, burns.
Injury to the kidney from drugs such as antibiotics or dyes or abnormal proteins as in myeloma. Used for imaging purpose.. Some antibiotics caused direct injury (e.g. Gentamycin) while others cause are due to drug allergy called interstitial nephritis (e.g. sulfa drugs). Obstruction to the flow of urine as in prostate enlargement, stones, or cancers constricting ureters.