Prof V.Ramlingaswami surveyed the Kangra district in Himachal pradesh during the period, 1956–1972, Wherein 1 lack school children were surveyed. Intervention was planned and the area was distributed in zones. Zone A was supplied with ordinary salt. Zone B received salt + potassium iodide. The results showed that the goiter rate dropped from 40% in 1956 to 19% in 1962, in zone B.
This study is well known as Kangra Valley study. Government of India realised the magnitude of the problem and launched a 100% Centrally Sponsored Programme called National Goiter Control Programme in 1962. In August 1992 this programme was renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme with a view to conver the wide spectrum of Iodine Deficiency Disorders like mental and physical retardation, Deaf – mutism, cretinism, still births, abortions.
International focus on elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders reflected in passing resolutions in world summit for children held at New York in September 1990, 43 rd world health assembly held at Geneva in may 1990, SAARC conference on children of South Asia held at Colombo in Sept,1992. India as a signatory to these resolutions reiterated its commitment to eliminate IDD.
Now, from 2 lacs tonnes of annual production, more than 40 lacs of annual production has been achieved. India is second largest manufacturer of Iodized Salt in the world after China. Presently 4.00 million tones of Iodized Salt in produced.
In last 50 years many countries in North America, Asia, Europe have eliminated IDD with Salt Iodization. For example, cretinism, Goiter have been eliminated in Switzerland due to salt Iodization since 1922.
As per WHO estimate about 30 % of world population is reported to have IDD.
As a Public Health Problem IDD is reported from 110 countries which account for 46% world population.
Elimination of IDD from the world is receiving highest priority from WHO, which is a reflected in the subject selected for discussion at 97 th session of the executive board and 49 th world health assembly held in may 1996. In 1995, a inter country conference was organized by international council for control of IDD, UNICEF, Canadian international Development, micronutrient agency Govt. of Bangladesh at Dhaka. The main theme of this meeting was commitment to the goal of eliminating IDD.
There are series of declarations at the following events
- International Conference on Nutrition, Rome in 1992.
- Rawalpindi resolution on children of South Asia at.
- “Third SAARC ministerial Conference on children of South Asia”.
- Surveys to assess the magniutde of the Iodine Deficiency Disorders.
- Supply of Iodated salt in place of common salt.
- Resurvey after every 5 Years to assess the extent of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and the impact of iodated salt.
- Laboratory monitoring of iodated salt in urinary iodine excretion.
- Health education.