The Immunization programme was launched in 1985–86 in a phased manner. It has been launched to reduce morbidity and mortality due to vaccine preventable diseases. The “Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI)” was launched in Oct. 1977 to control 5 vaccine preventable diseases viz. Diphtheria, Pertusis, Tetanus, Poliomyelitis and Tuberculosis. The “Universal immunization Programme” was introduced in 1985–86. The Measles vaccination was included in the programme during UIP.
In 1992 in the Universal Immunization programme became part of “Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (CSSM)”. The programme has been well set involving organization of immunization/MCP Session at fixed places, at Fixed timings on Fixed days both institutional as well as outreach session. The Reproductive & Child Health Programme (RCH) was launched in Oct. 1997. It was targeted to cover all pregnant woman with immunization against Tetanus & all infants with Primary immunization.
Special Features of Programme
Cold Chain equipment and vaccine is supplied by Central Government free of cost. Vaccine is given to all beneficiaries free of cost at every immunization session. Surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases is done through home visits and OPD & IPD cases.
Objectives of MCH & Immunization
- Reduction in maternal mortality.
- Reduction in infant mortality.
- Healthy growth of new born and children.
- To reduce morbidity and mortality due to vaccine preventable diseases.
- Elimination of Measles, Neonatal Tetanus (NNT) and Eradication of Poliomyelitis are the main objectives at present.
Strategy of MCH & Immunization
Health staff enumerates beneficiaries in their respective area. Health Assistants procures vaccine from their institution through proper Cold Chain. Vaccination is done under the supervision of Health Assistant. Defaulters are contacted. The vaccination schedule as recommended by Govt. of India is followed. The aim is to give primary immunization at proper age, proper dose and appropriate route before the first Birthday of child.
Activities of MCH and Immunization
- Early registration.
- T.T. Immunization.
- IFA Prophylaxes and theraputic to Antenatal Case (ANC).
- Advise regarding nutrition.
- Safe delivery practices.
- New Born Care.
- Delivery by trained person (Domiciliary or institutional).
Post Natal Services
- Registration of all births.
- New born care especially care of low birth weight babies.
- Iron and Folic Acid (IFA) Prophylaxes and theraputic distribution.
Implementation and Delivery System
The ANM at the subcenter and the trained birth attendants in the villages all the key person in the delivery of MCH Services. Immunization Clinics are utilized for providing regular antenatal services.
Primary vaccination is given to children before 1st birthday viz. 0 Polio, BCG, DPT, Polio, Measles and vit.A (1st dose). Booster dose of DPT, Polio & vit.A are given at 18 months to 24 months. 3 doses of vit.A are given after every 6 months. A dose of DT is given to children between 5 to 6 yrs. and a dose of TT is given to 10 years and 16 years. Pregnant women are given 2 doses/ Booster dose of TT.