What functions do the kidneys perform?The kidneys play central role in the maintenance of the volume and the ionic composition of the body fluids known as the homeostasis.
- Maintenance of electrolyte composition of body fluids.
- Maintenance of normal volume status of the body.
- Maintenance of normal blood pressure by way of the renin angiotensin system.
- Excretion of metabolic waste products. Eg. – Urea, Uric Acid, creatinine, sulfates, phosphates
- Detoxification and elimination of toxins, drugs and their metabolites.
- Control of the manufacturing of the Red Blood cells by elaborating the hormone called as the Erythropoeitin.
- Control of mineral metabolism mainly calcium and phosphorus.
How do patients with renal stones present? Or What is renal colic?Renal Colic is a manifestation of spasm of the ureter which is produced by the irritation of the stone and accompanying obstruction. The pain usually begins in the flank area and migrates towards the groin.. The pain may subsides after the stone or clot are passed and may be accompanied by a passage of blood in the urine. If infection occurs incurs then it leads to fever, difficulty in urination and increase frequency of urination.
What necessitated the passing of the Organ Donation Act in India?The act was passed to curb the commercial purchase of kidneys. The situation was exploited by middlemen resulting in very little remuneration to the donor who was usually from a low socioeconomic status. In addition there were instances when kidneys were removed from patients without their knowledge. The act also defined the criteria for brain death in order to encourage cadaveric donation.
What is the importance of the blood group in kidney transplant?Matching of the blood groups is an absolute pre–requisite for kidney transplantation. The following guidelines are used. However the following matches are also feasible:
|Donor||Blood Group Donate To|
|O||A, B, AB, O|
The Rh–typing of the blood need not be the same. For eg : from a mother who is B(+)ve to a patient daughter who is B(–)ve.